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  • Author or Editor: Sasikhan Geibprasert x
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Sasikhan Geibprasert, Sirintara Pongpech, Pakorn Jiarakongmun and Timo Krings

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are the spinal vascular malformations that are encountered most often, and they are usually encountered in the lower thoracic region. Cervical spine DAVFs are exceedingly rare and may be difficult to differentiate from radicular arteriovenous malformations, epidural arteriovenous shunts, or perimedullary AVFs. Typical angiographic findings in spinal DAVFs include a slow-flow shunt with converging feeding vessels from radiculomeningeal arteries draining via a radicular vein centripetally into perimedullary veins. The MR imaging findings such as spinal cord edema and perimedullary dilated vessels may be used to direct the spinal angiography that is needed to localize and classify the shunt. When the shunt is distant from the pathological imaging findings, the diagnosis may be difficult to establish, especially when the shunt is present at an atypical location such as the cervical spine. The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with lower thoracic and conus medullaris congestive edema due to a cervical spine DAVF that was located at the C-5 level. Transarterial embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate closed the proximal vein and completely obliterated the fistula. Clinical and imaging follow-up confirmed occlusion of the fistula, with improvement in clinical symptoms.

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Dittapong Songsaeng, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Karel G. ter Brugge, Robert Willinsky, Michael Tymianski and Timo Krings

Object

The goal was to investigate whether morphological features of aneurysms can be identified that determine initial success and recurrence rates of coiled aneurysms of the basilar artery tip, the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and the anterior communicating artery.

Methods

The authors evaluated 202 aneurysms in connection with their pretreatment morphological features including size, neck-to-dome ratio, angulation of the aneurysm in relation to the parent artery, orientation of the aneurysm dome, and associated anatomical variations. The mean follow-up was 19 months (range 6–96 months) after endovascular coil occlusion. Using multivariate logistic regression, probabilities for initial complete occlusion and long-term stability of the treatment were calculated.

Results

Recanalization occurred in 49 of 202 cases. Favorable factors for long-term stability included small aneurysms with small necks. However, additional factors related to local hemodynamic forces could be identified for the different aneurysm locations, which may influence initial success rates and long-term stability of aneurysm treatment with endovascular coiling. These factors were a medial dome orientation and a symmetrical disposition of both A1 segments (for the anterior communicating artery), a posteroinferior dome orientation and a small-size PCoA (for the PCoA), and a cranial symmetrical fusion (for the basilar artery tip).

Conclusions

A detailed pretreatment analysis of morphological features of aneurysms may help to determine those aneurysms that are more prone to recurrence, which could add to the treatment decision and the follow-up algorithm.

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Dittapong Songsaeng, Kittipong Srivatanakul, Timo Krings, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Augustin Ozanne and Pierre Lasjaunias

Object

The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical presentation, morphological characteristics, angio-architecture, and outcome of vertebrobasilar dissection (VBD) in the pediatric population.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 29 consecutive cases involving children younger than 16 years of age who were diagnosed with symptomatic VBDs. Data were gathered with respect to the patient's age, sex, clinical history, associated underlying disease, and symptoms (headache, vertigo) as well as the location of the dissection and the imaging appearance.

Results

The patients' mean age was 8.24 years (range 2 months–15 years). There was an overall 3:1 male predominance, although among children older than 8 years, girls and boys were similarly affected. Hemorrhagic dissections occurred in 10 of 29 cases. In nonhemorrhagic dissections, stroke occurred in 16 cases, with the most common presenting symptoms being headaches and vertigo; in the other 3 cases, mass effect due to a chronic dissecting aneurysm was present. In 7 children an underlying vessel wall disease was found. The location of the dissection was extradural in 11 cases and intradural in the remainder. There was no preference with respect to side. The basilar artery was affected in 9 patients.

Conclusions

The imaging appearance and clinical presentation of symptomatic VBDs in the pediatric population differs from that in adults. Boys are more often affected, especially at younger ages, and hemorrhagic presentation is more common, presumably owing to the fact that the basilar artery is more commonly involved. Depending on the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the dissection, different clinical symptoms will evolve, necessitating individually tailored treatment.

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Sasikhan Geibprasert, Vitor Pereira, Timo Krings, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Pierre Lasjaunias and Sirintara Pongpech

Object

The goal in this study was to present possible pathological mechanisms, clinical and imaging findings, and to describe the management and outcome in patients with hydrocephalus due to unruptured pial brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods

Medical records and imaging findings in 8 consecutive patients with hydrocephalus caused by AVMs and treated between June 2000 and September 2007 were retrospectively reviewed to determine clinical symptoms, AVM location, venous drainage, level/cause of obstruction, and degree of hydrocephalus. Management of hydrocephalus, AVM treatment, complications, and follow-up results were evaluated.

Results

Headaches were the most common clinical symptom (7 of 8 patients). Deep venous drainage was identified in all patients. Mechanical obstruction by the draining vein or the AVM nidus was seen in 6 patients, in whom obstruction occurred at the interventricular foramen (2 patients) or the aqueduct (4 patients). Hydrodynamic disorders following venous outflow obstruction and venous congestion of the posterior fossa led to hydrocephalus in the remaining 2 patients. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts were placed in 6 of 8 patients with a moderate to severe degree of hydrocephalus. Regression of hydrocephalus was noted in 4 patients, whereas in 2 the imaging findings were stable, 1 of whom had decreased hydrocephalus only after AVM size reduction. In 2 patients with mild hydrocephalus who were not treated with shunt insertion, 1 improved and 1 was clinically stable after AVM treatment.

Conclusions

The most common cause of hydrocephalus in unruptured brain AVMs is mechanical obstruction by the draining vein if it is located in a strategic position. Management should be aimed at treatment of the AVM; however, VP shunts may be necessary in acute and severe cases of hydrocephalus.

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Yutaka Mitsuhashi, Thaweesak Aurboonyawat, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Frédérique Toulgoat, Augustin Ozanne and Pierre Lasjaunias

Object

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with leptomeningeal venous reflux generally pose a high risk of aggressive manifestations including hemorrhage. Among DAVFs, there is a peculiar type that demonstrates direct drainage into the bridging vein rather than the dural venous sinus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of DAVFs that drain directly into the petrosal vein or the bridging vein of the medulla oblongata.

Methods

Eleven consecutive cases of DAVFs that drained directly into the petrosal vein and 6 that drained directly into the bridging vein of the medulla were retrospectively reviewed. These cases were evaluated and/or treated at Hospital de Bicêtre in Paris, France, over a 27-year period. A review of previously reported cases was also performed.

Results

Both of these “extrasinusal”-type DAVFs demonstrated very similar characteristics. There was a significant male predominance (p < 0.001) for this lesion, and a significantly higher incidence of aggressive neurological manifestations including hemorrhage or venous hypertension than in DAVFs of the transverse-sigmoid or cavernous sinus (p < 0.001). This finding was considered to be attributable to leptomeningeal venous reflux. Regarding treatment, endovascular embolization (either transarterial or transvenous) is frequently difficult, and surgery may be an effective therapeutic choice in many instances.

Conclusions

Embryologically, both the petrosal vein and the bridging vein of the medulla are cranial homologs of the spinal cord emissary bridging veins that drain the pial venous network. The authors believe that DAVFs in these locations may be included in a single category with spinal DAVFs because of their similar clinical characteristics.

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Giuseppe Lanzino and Edoardo Boccardi