Sascha Marx and Henry W. S. Schroeder
Sascha Marx, Stefan Clemens and Henry W. S. Schroeder
In tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) surgery, endonasal approaches are claimed to have a superior visual outcome compared with transcranial approaches. The authors question whether this is always true and analyze their series of cases of endoscope-assisted transcranial TSM surgery with special regard to the postoperative visual outcome in order to explore this issue.
All surgical procedures for TSM performed between 2003 and 2015 in the Department of Neurosurgery, University Medicine Greifswald, were retrospectively analyzed. Special attention was paid to the postoperative visual outcome.
During the study period, 15 patients (12 female and 3 male) underwent surgery for TSM. Gross-total resection was achieved in 14 cases (93.3%) and near-total resection in 1. One patient suffered from a major stroke during surgery and had to be excluded from further analyses. No other complications occurred. Preoperatively, visual acuity was disturbed in 12 patients (80%) and visual field deficits were present in 11 patients (73.3%). In 3 patients (20%), the TSM was an incidental finding. Postoperatively, ophthalmological examination revealed an improvement of visual acuity in 10 (90.9%) of 11 patients and improvement of visual field deficits in 9 (90%) of 10 patients; no deterioration of visual acuity or visual field was seen in any patient. Visual acuity and visual field improvement was observed in all patients who had surgery within 3 years after the onset of visual disturbances. No tumor recurrence was observed during follow-up (mean 32 months, range 3–134 months). TSMs were approached via a frontolateral craniotomy in 7 patients and via a supraorbital craniotomy in 8. The use of the endoscope as an assistive device led to improved tumor visualization and consequent removal in areas that were hidden in the microscopic view in 6 patients (40%).
The present series confirms a favorable visual outcome after TSM surgery via supraorbital or frontolateral endoscope-assisted approaches. With endoscopic visualization, major manipulation of the optic apparatus could be avoided, perhaps affecting the favorable visual outcome.
Jan U. Mueller, Joerg Baldauf, Sascha Marx, Michael Kirsch, Henry W. S. Schroeder and Dirk T. Pillich
Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations.
All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively.
A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%).
Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening.
Sascha Marx, Steffen K. Fleck, Ehab El Refaee, Jotham Manwaring, Christina Vorbau, Michael J. Fritsch, Michael R. Gaab, Henry W. S. Schroeder and Joerg Baldauf
Since its revival in the early 1990s, neuroendoscopy has become an integral component of modern neurosurgery. Endoscopic stent placement for treatment of CSF pathway obstruction is a rarely used and underestimated procedure. The authors present the first series of neuroendoscopic intracranial stenting for CSF pathway obstruction in adults with associated results and complications spanning a long-term follow-up of 20 years.
The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained clinical database for endoscopic stent placement performed in adults between 1993 and 2013.
Of 526 endoscopic intraventricular procedures, stents were placed for treatment of CSF disorders in 25 cases (4.8%). The technique was used in the management of arachnoid cysts (ACs; n = 8), tumor-related CSF disorders (n = 13), and hydrocephalus due to stenosis of the foramen of Monro (n = 2) or aqueduct (n = 2). The mean follow-up was 87.1 months. No deaths or infections occurred that were related to endoscopic placement of intracranial stents. Late stent dislocation or migration was observed in 3 patients (12%).
Endoscopic intracranial stent placement in adults is rarely required but is a safe and helpful technique in select cases. It is indicated when reliable and long-lasting restoration of CSF pathway obstructions cannot be achieved with standard endoscopic techniques. In the treatment of tumor-related hydrocephalus, it is a good option to avoid reclosure of the restored CSF pathway by tumor growth. Currently, routine stent placement after endoscopic fenestration of ACs is not recommended. Stent placement for treatment of CSF disorders due to tumor is a good option for avoiding CSF shunting. To avoid stent migration and dislocation, and to allow for easy removal if needed, the device should be fixed to a bur hole reservoir.