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Erik H. Middlebrooks, Sanjeet S. Grewal, Matthew Stead, Brian N. Lundstrom, Gregory A. Worrell and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising therapy for refractory epilepsy. Unfortunately, the variability in outcomes from ANT DBS is not fully understood. In this pilot study, the authors assess potential differences in functional connectivity related to the volume of tissue activated (VTA) in ANT DBS responders and nonresponders as a means for better understanding the mechanism of action and potentially improving DBS targeting.

METHODS

This retrospective analysis consisted of 6 patients who underwent ANT DBS for refractory epilepsy. Patients were classified as responders (n = 3) if their seizure frequency decreased by at least 50%. The DBS electrodes were localized postoperatively and VTAs were computationally generated based on DBS programming settings. VTAs were used as seed points for resting-state functional MRI connectivity analysis performed using a control dataset. Differences in cortical connectivity to the VTA were assessed between the responder and nonresponder groups.

RESULTS

The ANT DBS responders showed greater positive connectivity with the default mode network compared to nonresponders, including the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and precuneus. Interestingly, there was also a consistent anticorrelation with the hippocampus seen in responders that was not present in nonresponders.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on their pilot study, the authors observed that successful ANT DBS in patients with epilepsy produces increased connectivity in the default mode network, which the authors hypothesize increases the threshold for seizure propagation. Additionally, an inhibitory effect on the hippocampus mediated through increased hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration may contribute to seizure suppression. Future studies are planned to confirm these findings.

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Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sanjeet S. Grewal, Matthew Stead, Brian Nils Lundstrom, Jeffrey W. Britton, Cheolsu Shin, Gregory D. Cascino, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, Gregory A. Worrell and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Epilepsy surgery is effective for lesional epilepsy, but it can be associated with significant morbidity when seizures originate from eloquent cortex that is resected. Here, the objective was to describe chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation and evaluate its early surgical safety profile in adult patients with epilepsy originating from seizure foci in cortex that is not amenable to resection.

METHODS

Adult patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent intracranial electroencephalography monitoring for evaluation of resection. Those with seizure foci in eloquent cortex were not candidates for resection and were offered a short therapeutic trial of continuous subthreshold cortical stimulation via intracranial monitoring electrodes. After a successful trial, electrodes were explanted and permanent stimulation hardware was implanted.

RESULTS

Ten patients (6 males) who underwent chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation between 2014 and 2016 were included. Based on radiographic imaging, intracranial pathologies included cortical dysplasia (n = 3), encephalomalacia (n = 3), cortical tubers (n = 1), Rasmussen encephalitis (n = 1), and linear migrational anomaly (n = 1). The duration of intracranial monitoring ranged from 3 to 20 days. All patients experienced an uneventful postoperative course and were discharged home with a median length of stay of 10 days. No postoperative surgical complications developed (median follow-up length 7.7 months). Seizure severity and seizure frequency improved in all patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ institutional experience with this small group shows that chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation can be safely and effectively performed in appropriately selected patients without postoperative complications. Future investigation will provide further insight to recently published results regarding mechanism and efficacy of this novel and promising intervention.

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Sanjeet S. Grewal, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Timothy J. Kaufmann, Matthew Stead, Brian N. Lundstrom, Gregory A. Worrell, Chen Lin, Serhat Baydin and Jamie J. Van Gompel

When medically intractable epilepsy is multifocal or focal but poorly localized, neuromodulation can be useful therapy. One such technique is deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT). Unfortunately, the ANT is difficult to visualize in standard MRI sequences and its indirect targeting is difficult because of thalamic variability and atrophy in patients with epilepsy. The following study describes the novel use of the fast gray matter acquisition T1 inversion recovery (FGATIR) MRI sequence to delineate the mammillothalamic tract for direct targeting of the ANT through visualizing the termination of the mammillothalamic tract in the ANT.

The day prior to surgery in a 19-year-old, right-handed woman with a 5-year history of epilepsy, MRI was performed on a 3-T Siemens Prisma scanner (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector) using a 64-channel head and neck coil. As part of the imaging protocol, noncontrast magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were obtained for targeting purposes. The ANT was directly targeted using the FGATIR sequence, and bilateral Medtronic 3389 leads were placed. At the last follow-up (2 months), the patient reported an approximate 75% decrease in seizure frequency, as well as a decrease in seizure severity.

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Qurat ul Ain Khan, Robert E. Wharen, Sanjeet S. Grewal, Colleen S. Thomas, H. Gordon Deen Jr., Ronald Reimer, Jay A. Van Gerpen, Julia E. Crook and Neill R. Graff-Radford

Object

Management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is hard because the diagnosis is difficult and shunt surgery has high complication rates. An important complication is overdrainage, which often can be treated with adjustable–shunt valve manipulations but also may result in the need for subdural hematoma evacuation. The authors evaluated shunt surgery overdrainage complications in iNPH and their relationship to lumbar puncture opening pressure (LPOP).

Methods

The authors reviewed the charts of 164 consecutive patients with iNPH who underwent shunt surgery at their institution from 2005 to 2011. They noted age, sex, presenting symptoms, symptom duration, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), imaging findings of atrophy, white matter changes, entrapped sulci, LPOP, valve opening pressure (VOP) setting, number of valve adjustments, serious overdrainage (subdural hematoma requiring surgery), radiological overdrainage (subdural hematomas or hygroma seen on postoperative imaging), clinical overdrainage (sustained or postural headache), other complications, and improvements in gait, urine control, and memory.

Results

Eight patients (5%) developed subdural hematomas requiring surgery. All had an LPOP of greater than 160 mm H2O and an LPOP-VOP of greater than 40 mm H2O. Radiological overdrainage was more common in those with an LPOP of greater than 160 mm H2O than in those with an LPOP of less than 160 mm H2O (38% vs 21%, respectively; p = 0.024). The BMI was also significantly higher in those with an LPOP of greater than 160 mm H2O (median 30.2 vs 27.0, respectively; p = 0.005).

Conclusions

Serious overdrainage that caused subdural hematomas and also required surgery after shunting was related to LPOP and LPOP-VOP, which in turn were related to BMI. If this can be replicated, individuals with a high LPOP should have their VOP set close to the LPOP, or even higher. In doing this, perhaps overdrainage complications can be reduced.

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Sanjeet S. Grewal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, William J. Perkins, Gregory D. Cascino, Jeffrey W. Britton, David B. Burkholder, Elson So, Cheolsu Shin, Richard W. Marsh, Fredric B. Meyer, Gregory A. Worrell and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Almost 30% of the patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have normal results on MRI. Success rates for resection of MRI-negative TLE are less favorable, ranging from 36% to 76%. Herein the authors describe the impact of intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) augmented by opioid activation and its effect on postoperative seizure outcome.

METHODS

Adult and pediatric patients with medically resistant MRI-negative TLE who underwent standardized ECoG at the time of their elective anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with amygdalohippocampectomy between 1990 and 2016 were included in this study. Seizure recurrence comprised the primary outcome of interest and was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analysis plots based on distribution of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) recorded on scalp electroencephalography, baseline and opioid-induced IEDs on ECoG, and extent of resection.

RESULTS

Of the 1144 ATLs performed at the authors’ institution between 1990 and 2016, 127 (11.1%) patients (81 females) with MRI-negative TLE were eligible for this study. Patients with complete resection of tissue generating IED recorded on intraoperative ECoG were less likely to have seizure recurrence compared to those with incomplete resection on univariate analysis (p < 0.05). No difference was found in seizure recurrence between patients with bilateral independent IEDs and unilateral IEDs (p = 0.15), presence or absence of opioid-induced epileptiform activation (p = 0.61), or completeness of resection of tissue with opioid-induced IEDs on intraoperative ECoG (p = 0.41).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that incomplete resection of IED-generating tissue on intraoperative ECoG was associated with an increased chance of seizure recurrence. However, they found that induction of epileptiform activity with intraoperative opioid activation did not provide useful intraoperative data predictive of improving operative results for temporal lobectomy in MRI-negative epilepsy.

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Neil Haranhalli, Nnenna Mbabuike, Sanjeet S. Grewal, Tasneem F. Hasan, Michael G. Heckman, William D. Freeman, Vivek Gupta, Prasanna Vibhute, Benjamin L. Brown, David A. Miller, Babak S. Jahromi and Rabih G. Tawk

OBJECTIVE

The role of CT perfusion (CTP) in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a matter of debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the areas of infarction and penumbra on CTP scans and functional outcome in patients with AIS.

METHODS

This was a retrospective review of 100 consecutively treated patients with acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CTP at admission between February 2011 and October 2014. On CTP, the volume of ischemic core and penumbra was measured using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). CTA findings were also noted, including the site of occlusion and regional leptomeningeal collateral (rLMC) score. Functional outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score obtained at discharge. Associations of CTP and CTA parameters with mRS scores at discharge were assessed using multivariable proportional odds logistic regression models.

RESULTS

The median age was 67 years (range 19–95 years), and the median NIH Stroke Scale score was 16 (range 2–35). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for potential confounding variables, having an infarct on CTP scans in the following regions was associated with a worse mRS score at discharge: insula ribbon (p = 0.043), perisylvian fissure (p < 0.001), motor strip (p = 0.007), M2 (p < 0.001), and M5 (p = 0.023). A worse mRS score at discharge was more common in patients with a greater volume of infarct core (p = 0.024) and less common in patients with a greater rLMC score (p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study provide evidence that several CTP parameters are independent predictors of functional outcome in patients with AIS and have potential to identify those patients most likely to benefit from reperfusion therapy in the treatment of AIS.

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Sanjeet S. Grewal, Richard S. Zimmerman, Gregory Worrell, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, William O. Tatum, Amy Z. Crepeau, David A. Woodrum, Krzysztof R. Gorny, Joel P. Felmlee, Robert E. Watson, Joseph M. Hoxworth, Vivek Gupta, Prasanna Vibhute, Max R. Trenerry, Timothy J. Kaufmann, W. Richard Marsh, Robert E. Wharen Jr. and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Although it is still early in its application, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has increasingly been employed as a surgical option for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed to describe mesial temporal lobe ablation volumes and seizure outcomes following LiTT across the Mayo Clinic’s 3 epilepsy surgery centers.

METHODS

This was a multi-site, single-institution, retrospective review of seizure outcomes and ablation volumes following LiTT for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy between October 2011 and October 2015. Pre-ablation and post-ablation follow-up volumes of the hippocampus were measured using FreeSurfer, and the volume of ablated tissue was also measured on intraoperative MRI using a supervised spline-based edge detection algorithm. To determine seizure outcomes, results were compared between those patients who were seizure free and those who continued to experience seizures.

RESULTS

There were 23 patients who underwent mesial temporal LiTT within the study period. Fifteen patients (65%) had left-sided procedures. The median follow-up was 34 months (range 12–70 months). The mean ablation volume was 6888 mm3. Median hippocampal ablation was 65%, with a median amygdala ablation of 43%. At last follow-up, 11 (48%) of these patients were seizure free. There was no correlation between ablation volume and seizure freedom (p = 0.69). There was also no correlation between percent ablation of the amygdala (p = 0.28) or hippocampus (p = 0.82) and seizure outcomes. Twelve patients underwent formal testing with computational visual fields. Visual field changes were seen in 67% of patients who underwent testing. Comparing the 5 patients with clinically noticeable visual field deficits to the rest of the cohort showed no significant difference in ablation volume between those patients with visual field deficits and those without (p = 0.94). There were 11 patients with follow-up neuropsychological testing. Within this group, verbal learning retention was 76% in the patients with left-sided procedures and 89% in those with right-sided procedures.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, there was no significant correlation between the ablation volume after LiTT and seizure outcomes. Visual field deficits were common in formally tested patients, much as in patients treated with open temporal lobectomy. Further studies are required to determine the role of amygdalohippocampal ablation.