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  • Author or Editor: Sanjay K. Singh x
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Markus M. Luedi, Sanjay K. Singh, Jennifer C. Mosley, Islam S. A. Hassan, Masumeh Hatami, Joy Gumin, Lukas Andereggen, Erik P. Sulman, Frederick F. Lang, Frank Stueber, Gregory N. Fuller, Rivka R. Colen and Pascal O. Zinn

OBJECTIVE

Dexamethasone, a known regulator of mesenchymal programming in glioblastoma (GBM), is routinely used to manage edema in GBM patients. Dexamethasone also activates the expression of genes, such as CEBPB, in GBM stem cells (GSCs). However, the drug’s impact on invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in GBM remains unclear. To determine whether dexamethasone induces invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in GBM, the authors investigated the drug’s impact in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical information derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort.

METHODS

Expression profiles of patients from the TCGA cohort with mesenchymal GBM (n = 155) were compared with patients with proneural GBM by comparative marker selection. To obtain robust data, GSCs with IDH1 wild-type (GSC3) and with IDH1 mutant (GSC6) status were exposed to dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo and analyzed for invasion (Boyden chamber, human-specific nucleolin), proliferation (Ki-67), and angiogenesis (CD31). Ex vivo tumor cells from dexamethasone-treated and control mice were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting and profiled using Affymetrix chips for mRNA (HTA 2.0) and microRNAs (miRNA 4.0). A pathway analysis was performed to identify a dexamethasone-regulated gene signature, and its relationship with overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis in the entire GBM TCGA cohort (n = 520).

RESULTS

The mesenchymal subgroup, when compared with the proneural subgroup, had significant upregulation of a dexamethasone-regulated gene network, as well as canonical pathways of proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Dexamethasone-treated GSC3 demonstrated a significant increase in invasion, both in vitro and in vivo, whereas GSC6 demonstrated a modest increase. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment of both GSC3 and GSC6 lines resulted in significantly elevated cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo. Patients with mesenchymal GBM had significant upregulation of dexamethasone-regulated pathways when compared with patients with proneural GBM. A prognostic (p = 0.0007) 33-gene signature was derived from the ex vivo expression profile analyses and used to dichotomize the entire TCGA cohort by high (median OS 12.65 months) or low (median OS 14.91 months) dexamethasone signature.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors present evidence that furthers the understanding of the complex effects of dexamethasone on biological characteristics of GBM. The results suggest that the drug increases invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in human GSC-derived orthotopic tumors, potentially worsening GBM patients’ prognoses. The authors believe that careful investigation is needed to determine how to minimize these deleterious dexamethasone-associated side effects in GBM.

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Sameer Agnihotri, Isabel Gugel, Marc Remke, Antje Bornemann, Georgios Pantazis, Stephen C. Mack, David Shih, Sanjay K. Singh, Nesrin Sabha, Michael D. Taylor, Marcos Tatagiba, Gelareh Zadeh and Boris Krischek

Object

Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are common benign tumors of the vestibular nerve that cause significant morbidity. The current treatment strategies for VS include surgery or radiation, with each treatment option having associated complications and side effects. The transcriptional landscape of schwannoma remains largely unknown.

Methods

In this study the authors performed gene-expression profiling of 49 schwannomas and 7 normal control vestibular nerves to identify tumor-specific gene-expression patterns. They also interrogated whether schwannomas comprise several molecular subtypes using several transcription-based clustering strategies. The authors also performed in vitro experiments testing therapeutic inhibitors of over-activated pathways in a schwannoma cell line, namely the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Results

The authors identified over 4000 differentially expressed genes between controls and schwannomas with network analysis, uncovering proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways previously not implicated in VS. Furthermore, using several distinct clustering technologies, they could not reproducibly identify distinct VS subtypes or significant differences between sporadic and germline NF2–associated schwannomas, suggesting that they are highly similar entities. The authors identified overexpression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling networks in their geneexpression study and evaluated this pathway for therapeutic targeting. Testing the compounds BEZ235 and PKI-587, both novel dual inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR, attenuated tumor growth in a preclinical cell line model of schwannoma (HEI-293). In vitro findings demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway with next-generation compounds led to decreased cell viability and increased cell death.

Conclusions

These findings implicate aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in VS and suggest inhibition of this pathway as a potential treatment strategy.