Haewon Roh, Junwon Kim, Heejin Bae, Kyuha Chong, Jong Hyun Kim, Sang-il Suh, Taek-Hyun Kwon and Wonki Yoon
The safety of the stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) technique for acutely ruptured aneurysms has not been established yet. SAC is believed to be associated with a high risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in the setting of acutely ruptured aneurysm.
A total of 102 patients who received endovascular treatment for acute SAH between January 2011 and December 2017 were enrolled. The SAC technique was performed in 38 of these patients, whereas the no-stent coil embolization (NSC) technique was performed in 64. The safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in acute SAH was evaluated as compared with the NSC technique by retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical outcomes.
There were no significant differences in clinical or angiographic outcomes between the SAC and NSC techniques in patients with acute SAH. The rate of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhagic complications was higher in the SAC group than that in the NSC group (63.6% vs 12.5%; OR 12.25, 95% CI 1.78–83.94, p = 0.01). However, all these complications were asymptomatic and so small that they were only able to be diagnosed with imaging.
Ruptured wide-necked aneurysms could be effectively and safely treated with the SAC technique, which showed clinical and angiographic outcomes similar to those of the NSC technique. Hence, the SAC technique with dual-antiplatelet drugs may be a viable option even in acute SAH.
Byung-Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Moon Sun Park, Sung Il Park, Eun Chul Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chun Sik Choi, Yu Sam Won and In Kyu Yu
Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare but carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, BBAs are very difficult to treat surgically as well as endovascularly. The authors present their experience in treating BBAs with reconstructive endovascular methods.
Nine ruptured BBAs in 9 consecutive patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age 50 years, range 42–57 years) were treated using reconstructive endovascular methods between January 2006 and November 2007. Treatment methods and angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.
All 9 BBAs were initially treated with stent-assisted coil (SAC) embolization. This was followed by a second stent insertion using the stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique in 3, covered stent placement in 3, and SAC embolization alone in 3. All 3 patients who underwent SWS placement had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) with complete angiographic resolution of the BBAs. There were no treatment-related complications in the SWS group. Two of the 3 patients who received covered stents had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) and complete occlusion of the BBA was achieved. The remaining patient who received a covered stent died of ICA rupture during the procedure. Aneurysm regrowth without rebleeding occurred in the 3 patients who underwent SAC embolization. Two of the 3 recurrent BBAs were treated with coil embolization with a second stent insertion, and as a result these belonged to the SWS group. The other recurrent BBA was treated with a covered stent. Of the 8 surviving patients, 5 underwent SWS, and 3 underwent covered stent placement. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes during the clinical follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 4–26 months); complete BBA resolution and smooth reconstruction of the affected ICA segment was shown on follow-up angiography.
In the present study, the SWS and covered-stent techniques effectively prevented rebleeding and regrowth of the BBA without sacrifice of the ICA. The SWS and covered-stent techniques can be considered an alternative treatment option for BBAs in selected patients in whom ICA sacrifice is not feasible. Stent-assisted coiling alone seems insufficient to prevent BBA regrowth.
Sang Hyun Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Sung Il Park, Dong Ik Kim, Yong Sam Shin, Eui Jong Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Jun Seok Koh, Hyun Cheol Shin, Chun Sik Choi and Yu Sam Won
A ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA-DA) is a well-known cause of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a high rate of early rebleeding. Internal trapping of the parent artery, including the dissected segment, is one of the most reliable techniques to prevent rebleeding. However, for a ruptured VBA-DA not suitable for internal trapping, the optimal treatment method has not been well established. The authors describe their experience in treating ruptured VBA-DAs not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery with stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) followed by a stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique.
Eleven patients—6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 48 years and each with a ruptured VBA-DA not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery—underwent an SAC-SWS between November 2005 and October 2007. The feasibility and clinical and angiographic outcomes of this combined procedure were retrospectively evaluated.
The SAC-SWS was successful without any treatment-related complications in all 11 patients. Immediate posttreatment angiograms revealed complete obliteration of the DA sac in 3 patients, near-complete obliteration in 7, and partial obliteration in 1. One patient died as a direct consequence of the initial SAH. All 10 surviving patients had excellent clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) without posttreatment rebleeding during a follow-up period of 8–24 months (mean follow-up 15 months). Angiographic follow-up at 6–12 months after treatment was possible at least once in all surviving patients. Nine VBA-DAs showed complete obliteration; the other aneurysm, which had appeared partially obliterated immediately after treatment, demonstrated progressive obliteration on 2 consecutive follow-up angiography studies. There was no in-stent stenosis or occlusion of the branch or perforating vessels.
The SAC-SWS technique seems to be a feasible and effective reconstructive treatment option for a ruptured VBA-DA. The technique may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients with ruptured VBA-DAs unsuitable for internal trapping of the parent artery.