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Hyung-Youl Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Sang-Il Kim, Sung-Bin Han and Kee-Yong Ha

OBJECTIVE

Few studies have addressed that dynamic sagittal imbalance can develop distal to the spinal fusion and cause sagittal malalignment, unlike proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in the proximal portion. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors between the 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance after long fusion to the sacrum for the treatment of degenerative sagittal imbalance (DSI).

METHODS

Eighty patients who had undergone surgical correction for DSI were included. Radiographic measurements included spinopelvic parameters on whole-spine plain radiographs and degeneration of paravertebral muscles on MRI. Univariate and multivariate analyses for clinical and radiological factors were conducted for respective risk factors. In subgroup analyses, the 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance were directly compared.

RESULTS

Forty patients (50%) developed postoperative sagittal imbalance; of these patients, 22 (55.0%) developed static proximal kyphosis from PJK, and 18 patients (45.0%) developed dynamic sagittal imbalance without PJK. The independent risk factors in proximal kyphosis were greater postoperative pelvic tilt (HR 1.11) and less change in sacral slope (SS) (HR 1.09), whereas there were more fusion levels (HR 3.11), less change in SS (HR 1.28), and less change in thoracic kyphosis (HR 1.26) in dynamic sagittal imbalance. Directly compared with the proximal kyphosis group, dynamic sagittal imbalance was more commonly found in patients who had less correction of sagittal parameters as well as fatty atrophy of the paravertebral muscles. Clinical outcomes in the dynamic sagittal imbalance group were superior to those in the proximal kyphosis group.

CONCLUSIONS

Optimal correction of sagittal alignment should be considered in long instrumented fusion for DSI, because insufficient correction might cause one of 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance at different sites of decompression. Dynamic sagittal imbalance compared with proximal kyphosis was significantly associated with less correction of sagittal alignment, in conjunction with more fusion levels and degeneration of the paravertebral muscles.

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Haewon Roh, Junwon Kim, Heejin Bae, Kyuha Chong, Jong Hyun Kim, Sang-il Suh, Taek-Hyun Kwon and Wonki Yoon

OBJECTIVE

The safety of the stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) technique for acutely ruptured aneurysms has not been established yet. SAC is believed to be associated with a high risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in the setting of acutely ruptured aneurysm.

METHODS

A total of 102 patients who received endovascular treatment for acute SAH between January 2011 and December 2017 were enrolled. The SAC technique was performed in 38 of these patients, whereas the no-stent coil embolization (NSC) technique was performed in 64. The safety and efficacy of the SAC technique in acute SAH was evaluated as compared with the NSC technique by retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in clinical or angiographic outcomes between the SAC and NSC techniques in patients with acute SAH. The rate of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhagic complications was higher in the SAC group than that in the NSC group (63.6% vs 12.5%; OR 12.25, 95% CI 1.78–83.94, p = 0.01). However, all these complications were asymptomatic and so small that they were only able to be diagnosed with imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

Ruptured wide-necked aneurysms could be effectively and safely treated with the SAC technique, which showed clinical and angiographic outcomes similar to those of the NSC technique. Hence, the SAC technique with dual-antiplatelet drugs may be a viable option even in acute SAH.

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Jae Taek Hong, Tae Hyung Kim, Il Sup Kim, Seung Ho Yang, Jae Hoon Sung, Byung Chul Son and Sang Won Lee

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze the exact location of the internal carotid artery (ICA) relative to the C-1 lateral mass and describe the effect of age on the tortuosity of the ICA.

Methods

The authors analyzed 641 patients who had undergone CT angiography to evaluate the location of the ICA in relation to the C-1 lateral mass. Each patient was assigned to 1 of 3 age groups (< 41 years, 41–60 years, and > 60 years of age). The degree of lateral positioning of the ICA was classified into 4 groups: Group 1 (lateral to the C-1 lateral mass), Group 2 (lateral half of the lateral mass), Group 3 (medial half of the lateral mass), or Group 4 (medial to the lateral mass). The anteroposterior relationship of the ICA was classified into Group A (posterior to the anterior tubercle) or Group B (anterior to the anterior tubercle). Distances from the ICA to the midline, anterior tubercle, and anterior cortex of the lateral mass were measured. Distances between the lateral margin of the lateral mass and the longus capitis muscle were also evaluated.

Results

The prevalence of the ICA located in front of the lateral mass (Groups 2 and 3) was 47.4% overall. The position of the ICA changes with age due to vessel tortuosity. Only 18.3% of patients in the youngest age group (< 41 years of age) had an ICA in front of the lateral mass (Group 2 or 3 area). However, this percentage increased in the older 2 groups (43.5% in the 41–60 year old group, and 57% in the > 60-year-old age group). The mean distance from the midline to the ICA was 22.6 mm, and the mean distance from the ICA to the C-1 anterior tubercle and the ventral cortex of the lateral mass was 4.7 and 4.5 mm, respectively. Moreover, the ICA is more prone to injury during bicortical C-1 screw placement when the longus capitis muscle is hypotrophic and does not cover the entire ventral surface of the lateral mass.

Conclusions

Elderly patients have a higher incidence of a medially located ICA that may contribute to the risk of injury to the ICA during bicortical C-1 screw or C1–2 transarticular screw placement. Although the small number of reported cases of ICA injury does not allow for determination of a direct relationship with specific anatomical characteristics, the presence of unfavorable anatomy does warrant serious consideration during evaluation for C-1 screw placement in elderly patients.

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Il-Man Kim, Man-Bin Yim, Chang-Young Lee, Eun-Ik Son, Dong-Won Kim, Sang-Pyo Kim and Chul-Ho Sohn

✓ In planning surgical treatment for extraaxial cavernous hemangiomas, care should be taken to control severe tumor bleeding. The authors present a case of a large cavernous hemangioma of the cavernous sinus, which was completely removed with the aid of multiple intratumoral injections of fibrin glue. This novel method is very effective for preventing excessive blood loss during surgery for this type of lesion.

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Doo-Sik Kong, Chang-Ki Hong, Sang Duk Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Ho Jun Seol, Jiwoong Oh, Dong Gyu Kim and Yong Hwy Kim

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and the transcranial approach (TCA) are good options for the treatment of tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify the key anatomical features in TS meningiomas and compare the two surgical approaches.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical data in 178 patients with TS meningiomas treated at 3 institutions between January 2010 and July 2016. Patients with tumors encasing the internal carotid artery or anterior cerebral artery or involving the anterior clinoid process or cavernous sinus were excluded. Tumors were classified as high-lying or low-lying based on their location, and involvement of the optic canal was evaluated. The surgical outcomes of EEA and TCA were analyzed according to the relevant anatomical features.

RESULTS

During the study period, 84 patients underwent EEA and 94 patients underwent TCA. Based on preoperative MR images, 43 (24.2%) meningiomas were classified as high-lying tumors, 126 (70.8%) as low-lying, and 9 (5.0%) as nonspecific. Gross-total resection (GTR) was performed in 145 patients (81.5%); the GTR rate did not differ significantly between the EEA and TCA groups. Of 157 patients with preoperative visual disturbance, 140 had improved or stable vision postoperatively. However, 17 patients (9.6%) experienced some visual deterioration after surgery. The TCA group had a worse visual outcome than the EEA group in patients with preoperative optic canal involvement (77.6% vs 93.2%, p = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in visual outcome based on whether tumors were high-lying or low-lying.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study support EEA over TCA, at least with respect to visual improvement with acceptable complications, although TCA is still an effective approach for TS meningioma.

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Sang Hyun Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Sung Il Park, Dong Ik Kim, Yong Sam Shin, Eui Jong Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Jun Seok Koh, Hyun Cheol Shin, Chun Sik Choi and Yu Sam Won

Object

A ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA-DA) is a well-known cause of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a high rate of early rebleeding. Internal trapping of the parent artery, including the dissected segment, is one of the most reliable techniques to prevent rebleeding. However, for a ruptured VBA-DA not suitable for internal trapping, the optimal treatment method has not been well established. The authors describe their experience in treating ruptured VBA-DAs not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery with stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) followed by a stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique.

Methods

Eleven patients—6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 48 years and each with a ruptured VBA-DA not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery—underwent an SAC-SWS between November 2005 and October 2007. The feasibility and clinical and angiographic outcomes of this combined procedure were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The SAC-SWS was successful without any treatment-related complications in all 11 patients. Immediate posttreatment angiograms revealed complete obliteration of the DA sac in 3 patients, near-complete obliteration in 7, and partial obliteration in 1. One patient died as a direct consequence of the initial SAH. All 10 surviving patients had excellent clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) without posttreatment rebleeding during a follow-up period of 8–24 months (mean follow-up 15 months). Angiographic follow-up at 6–12 months after treatment was possible at least once in all surviving patients. Nine VBA-DAs showed complete obliteration; the other aneurysm, which had appeared partially obliterated immediately after treatment, demonstrated progressive obliteration on 2 consecutive follow-up angiography studies. There was no in-stent stenosis or occlusion of the branch or perforating vessels.

Conclusions

The SAC-SWS technique seems to be a feasible and effective reconstructive treatment option for a ruptured VBA-DA. The technique may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients with ruptured VBA-DAs unsuitable for internal trapping of the parent artery.

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Jae Taek Hong, Sang Won Lee, Byung Chul Son, Jae Hoon Sung, Il Sub Kim and Chun Kun Park

✓ Atlantoaxial fixation in which C1–2 screw–rod fixation is performed is a relatively new method. Because reports about this technique are rather scant, little is known about its associated complications. In this report the authors introduce hypoglossal nerve palsy as a complication of this novel posterior atlantoaxial stabilization method.

A 67-year-old man underwent a C1–2 screw–rod fixation for persistent neck pain resulting from a Type 2 odontoid fracture that involved disruption of the transverse atlantal ligament. Posterior instrumentation in which a C-1 lateral mass screw and C-2 pedicle screw were placed was performed. Postoperatively, the patient suffered dysphagia with deviation of the tongue to the left side. At the 4-month follow-up examination, bone fusion was noted on plain x-ray studies of the cervical spine. His hypoglossal nerve palsy resolved completely 2 months postoperatively.

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of hypoglossal nerve palsy following C1–2 screw–rod fixation. The hypoglossal nerve is one of the structures that can be damaged during C-1 lateral mass screw placement.

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Heon Yoo, Young Zoon Kim, Byung Ho Nam, Sang Hoon Shin, Hee Seok Yang, Jin Soo Lee, Jae Il Zo and Seung Hoon Lee

Object

The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic impact of the resection of metastatic brain tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma.

Methods

Between July 2001 and February 2007, 94 patients (67 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 55.0 ±12.0 years) underwent resection of a single brain metastasis, followed by systemic chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. In 43 patients with tumors located in noneloquent areas, the authors performed microscopic total resections (MTRs) that included tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma, and they pathologically confirmed during surgery that the resection margins were free of tumor cells (MTR group). In 51 patients with lesions in eloquent locations, gross-total resections (GTRs) were performed without the removal of neighboring brain parenchyma (GTR group). The 2 groups were then compared for local recurrence and survival.

Results

The MTR group had better local control of the tumor than did the GTR group; 10 (23.3%) of 43 patients in the MTR group and 22 (43.1%) of 51 patients in the GTR group had a local recurrence (p = 0.04). The median time to tumor progression in the MTR group could not be calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, whereas it was 11.4 months in the GTR group. The 1- and 2-year respective local recurrence rates were 29.1 and 29.1% in the MTR group and 58.6 and 63.2% in the GTR group (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the MTR procedure was associated with a decreased risk of local recurrence (p = 0.003). A Cox regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio for a local recurrence in the MTR group versus the GTR group was 3.14 (95% CI 1.47–6.72, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the local recurrence rate between the MTR group without radiotherapy (10 [30.3%] of 33) and the GTR group with postoperative radiotherapy (5 [26.3%] of 19).

Conclusions

The results in this study suggest that MTRs including tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma for a single brain metastasis provide better local tumor control.

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Byung-Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Moon Sun Park, Sung Il Park, Eun Chul Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chun Sik Choi, Yu Sam Won and In Kyu Yu

Object

Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare but carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, BBAs are very difficult to treat surgically as well as endovascularly. The authors present their experience in treating BBAs with reconstructive endovascular methods.

Methods

Nine ruptured BBAs in 9 consecutive patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age 50 years, range 42–57 years) were treated using reconstructive endovascular methods between January 2006 and November 2007. Treatment methods and angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

All 9 BBAs were initially treated with stent-assisted coil (SAC) embolization. This was followed by a second stent insertion using the stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique in 3, covered stent placement in 3, and SAC embolization alone in 3. All 3 patients who underwent SWS placement had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) with complete angiographic resolution of the BBAs. There were no treatment-related complications in the SWS group. Two of the 3 patients who received covered stents had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) and complete occlusion of the BBA was achieved. The remaining patient who received a covered stent died of ICA rupture during the procedure. Aneurysm regrowth without rebleeding occurred in the 3 patients who underwent SAC embolization. Two of the 3 recurrent BBAs were treated with coil embolization with a second stent insertion, and as a result these belonged to the SWS group. The other recurrent BBA was treated with a covered stent. Of the 8 surviving patients, 5 underwent SWS, and 3 underwent covered stent placement. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes during the clinical follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 4–26 months); complete BBA resolution and smooth reconstruction of the affected ICA segment was shown on follow-up angiography.

Conclusions

In the present study, the SWS and covered-stent techniques effectively prevented rebleeding and regrowth of the BBA without sacrifice of the ICA. The SWS and covered-stent techniques can be considered an alternative treatment option for BBAs in selected patients in whom ICA sacrifice is not feasible. Stent-assisted coiling alone seems insufficient to prevent BBA regrowth.

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Myung-Jin Park, In-Chul Park, Jin-Heang Hur, Mi-Suk Kim, Hyung-Chan Lee, Sang-Hyeok Woo, Kyung-Hee Lee, Chang-Hun Rhee, Seok-Il Hong and Seung-Hoon Lee

Object. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been postulated to play a central role in brain tumor invasion; however, its underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, by assessing the effect of a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, on the secretion of MMPs and in vitro invasion of various glioma cells, the authors attempt to define the role of the p38 MAPK pathway in the regulation of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) activated by phorbol ester (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate [PMA]) in the D54 human glioblastoma cell line.

Methods. The activation of MAPKs was determined using Western blot analysis after addition of phospho-specific antibodies against these kinases, the status of MMPs and TIMPs was analyzed using gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis, and the invasion rate of D54 cells and other glioma cells was analyzed using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Treatment of D54 cells with PMA activated two distinct MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase. Induction of MMP-9 production and MMP-2 activation by PMA were blocked by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, but not by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK 1/2. In addition, PMA-induced downregulation of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 secretion and upregulation of the membrane type 1 MMP, a major activator of MMP-2 on the cell surface, were reversed by SB203580 in these cells; the PMA-induced increase of invasion in vitro decreased when SB203580 was added to the top compartment of a modified Boyden chamber; and the inhibitor also reduced the MMP secretion and PMA-induced in vitro invasion in various glioma cell lines.

Conclusions. These results indicate that activation of p38 MAPK by PMA plays a central role in the regulation of MMPs and TIMPs in D54 cells, which has a major influence in tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 blocked the secretion of MMPs and in vitro invasion of various glioma cells, underscoring a possible role of p38 MAPK inhibitors as antiinvasive and/or antimetastatic agents of malignant gliomas.