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Byung Moon Kim, Pyoung Jeon, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh and Keun Young Park

OBJECT

Internal carotid artery (ICA) rupture during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is an extremely difficult complication to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate and long-term outcomes of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

METHODS

Seven patients underwent covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of a ruptured ICA during or after TSS. The safety and effectiveness of covered stent placement for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS

Pretreatment angiography showed active bleeding in 6 patients (5 intraoperative and 1 postoperative) and a pseudoaneurysm in 1 patient. Of the 6 patients with active bleeding, 5 were treated with a successive operation to control active bleeding. The other patient was treated just after cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to massive nasal bleeding 20 days after revision of TSS. All active bleeding was controlled immediately after covered stent insertion in these 6 patients. One patient showed a gap between the covered stent and ICA wall without active bleeding 30 minutes after glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor administration due to in-stent thrombosis. The gap was occluded with coil embolization after completion of the temporarily suspended TSS. The seventh patient, whose ICA tear was treated with surgical suture, underwent covered stent placement for a pseudoaneurysm detected on postoperative Day 2. During a mean follow-up period of 46 months (range 12–85 months), all patients had excellent outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0). All the stented ICAs were patent on vascular imaging follow-up at a mean of 34 months (range 12–85 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Covered stents appear to be a safe and effective option for emergency reconstruction of ruptured ICAs during or after TSS.

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Joonho Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo, Yong Cheol Lim, Yong Sam Shin and Yong Bae Kim

OBJECT

The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using self-expanding closed-cell stents deployed in small arteries (< 2 mm in diameter) to treat intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

A total of 31 patients were studied. All subjects met the following criteria: 1) they received an Enterprise stent for treatment of a wide-necked aneurysm or a dissecting aneurysm or as part of a stent-salvage procedure; and 2) they had an Enterprise stent deployed in a small parent artery (< 2 mm in diameter) that had no atherosclerotic stenosis. Procedure-related complications and follow-up sizes of the parent arteries were evaluated for safety and patency.

RESULTS

There were 16 ruptured aneurysms and 15 unruptured aneurysms. Three (9.7%) of the 31 patients experienced procedure-related complications, and they all were asymptomatic. Follow-up angiography was performed in 27 patients (87.1%) (at a mean 15.5 months after surgery). Parent arteries with 2 acute angles (n = 4) were occluded in 3 cases (75.0%), and those with no acute angles (n = 13) or 1 acute angle (n = 6) showed 100% patency on follow-up angiography. There was a significant difference between the follow-up sizes (mean 1.72 ± 0.30 mm) of parent arteries and their sizes (mean 1.59 ± 0.26 mm) before treatment (95% CI − 0.254 to − 0.009 mm; p = 0.037, paired-samples t-test).

CONCLUSIONS

In the current series the deployment of self-expanding closed-cell stents in small arteries was safe and resulted in good patency, especially when the stents were deployed in segments of the parent artery with no acute angles or only 1 acute angle.

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Byung-Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Moon Sun Park, Sung Il Park, Eun Chul Chung, Sang Hyun Suh, Chun Sik Choi, Yu Sam Won and In Kyu Yu

Object

Ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare but carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, BBAs are very difficult to treat surgically as well as endovascularly. The authors present their experience in treating BBAs with reconstructive endovascular methods.

Methods

Nine ruptured BBAs in 9 consecutive patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age 50 years, range 42–57 years) were treated using reconstructive endovascular methods between January 2006 and November 2007. Treatment methods and angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

All 9 BBAs were initially treated with stent-assisted coil (SAC) embolization. This was followed by a second stent insertion using the stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique in 3, covered stent placement in 3, and SAC embolization alone in 3. All 3 patients who underwent SWS placement had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) with complete angiographic resolution of the BBAs. There were no treatment-related complications in the SWS group. Two of the 3 patients who received covered stents had excellent outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) and complete occlusion of the BBA was achieved. The remaining patient who received a covered stent died of ICA rupture during the procedure. Aneurysm regrowth without rebleeding occurred in the 3 patients who underwent SAC embolization. Two of the 3 recurrent BBAs were treated with coil embolization with a second stent insertion, and as a result these belonged to the SWS group. The other recurrent BBA was treated with a covered stent. Of the 8 surviving patients, 5 underwent SWS, and 3 underwent covered stent placement. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes during the clinical follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 4–26 months); complete BBA resolution and smooth reconstruction of the affected ICA segment was shown on follow-up angiography.

Conclusions

In the present study, the SWS and covered-stent techniques effectively prevented rebleeding and regrowth of the BBA without sacrifice of the ICA. The SWS and covered-stent techniques can be considered an alternative treatment option for BBAs in selected patients in whom ICA sacrifice is not feasible. Stent-assisted coiling alone seems insufficient to prevent BBA regrowth.

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Jong Won Choi, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Sang Hyun Suh, Na-Young Shin and Jin Goo Lee

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula (HC-dAVF).

Methods

During a 16-year period, 238 patients underwent endovascular treatment for cranial dAVF at a single center. The incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of HC-dAVF were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% (n = 10). Initial symptoms were tinnitus with headache (n = 6), tinnitus only (n = 1), ocular symptoms (n = 1), otalgia (n = 1), and congestive myelopathy (n = 1). Presenting symptoms requiring treatment included ocular symptoms (n = 4), hypoglossal nerve palsy (n = 4), aggravation of myelopathy (n = 1), and aggravation of tinnitus with headache (n = 1). While the affected HC was widened in 4 of 10 patients, hypersignal intensity on source images was conspicuous in all 7 patients who underwent MR angiography (MRA). All ocular symptoms and congestive myelopathy were associated with predominant drainage to superior ophthalmic or perimedullary veins due to antegrade drainage restriction. All patients who underwent transvenous coil embolization (n = 8) or transarterial N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization (n = 1) improved without recurrence. One patient who underwent transarterial particle embolization had a recurrence 12 months posttreatment and was retreated with transvenous embolization.

Conclusions

The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% of all cranial dAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment. Source images of MRA helped to accurately diagnose HC-dAVF. More aggressive symptoms may develop as a result of a change in the predominant drainage route due to the development of venous stenosis or obstruction over time. Transvenous coil embolization appears to be the first treatment of choice.

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Joonho Chung, Yong Cheol Lim, Sang Hyun Suh, Yu Shik Shim, Yong Bae Kim, Jin-Yang Joo, Bum-soo Kim and Yong Sam Shin

Object

The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experiences in stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) of ruptured wide-necked aneurysms in the acute period and to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications.

Methods

A total of 72 patients were recruited for this study between March 2007 and June 2012. All patients met the following criteria: 1) the presence of ruptured intracranial wide-necked saccular aneurysms, and 2) the patient underwent SAC for treatment of those aneurysms within 72 hours of rupture. All of the patients with clinically poor grades or acute hydrocephalus underwent external ventricular drainage (EVD) before SAC. The incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

Of the 72 patients included in this study, periprocedural complications occurred in 14 (19.4%), including asymptomatic complications in 4 (5.6%) and symptomatic complications in 10 (13.9%); there were symptomatic thromboembolic complications in 5 patients (6.9%), and symptomatic hemorrhagic complications in 5 (6.9%). The authors observed no subacute or delayed thromboembolic complications during the follow-up period of 18.8 months. Use of EVD (OR 1.413, 95% CI 0.088–2.173; p = 0.046) was the only independent risk factor for periprocedural complications on multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions

The periprocedural complication rate during SAC was 19.4% among 72 patients. Because of the high complication rate, microsurgical clipping or endovascular treatment with another technique (multiple-microcatheter or balloon-assisted technique) may be a more appropriate option for first-line treatment than SAC, especially in patients requiring EVD.

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Sang Hyun Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Sung Il Park, Dong Ik Kim, Yong Sam Shin, Eui Jong Kim, Eun Chul Chung, Jun Seok Koh, Hyun Cheol Shin, Chun Sik Choi and Yu Sam Won

Object

A ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA-DA) is a well-known cause of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with a high rate of early rebleeding. Internal trapping of the parent artery, including the dissected segment, is one of the most reliable techniques to prevent rebleeding. However, for a ruptured VBA-DA not suitable for internal trapping, the optimal treatment method has not been well established. The authors describe their experience in treating ruptured VBA-DAs not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery with stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) followed by a stent-within-a-stent (SWS) technique.

Methods

Eleven patients—6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 48 years and each with a ruptured VBA-DA not amenable to internal trapping of the parent artery—underwent an SAC-SWS between November 2005 and October 2007. The feasibility and clinical and angiographic outcomes of this combined procedure were retrospectively evaluated.

Results

The SAC-SWS was successful without any treatment-related complications in all 11 patients. Immediate posttreatment angiograms revealed complete obliteration of the DA sac in 3 patients, near-complete obliteration in 7, and partial obliteration in 1. One patient died as a direct consequence of the initial SAH. All 10 surviving patients had excellent clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 5) without posttreatment rebleeding during a follow-up period of 8–24 months (mean follow-up 15 months). Angiographic follow-up at 6–12 months after treatment was possible at least once in all surviving patients. Nine VBA-DAs showed complete obliteration; the other aneurysm, which had appeared partially obliterated immediately after treatment, demonstrated progressive obliteration on 2 consecutive follow-up angiography studies. There was no in-stent stenosis or occlusion of the branch or perforating vessels.

Conclusions

The SAC-SWS technique seems to be a feasible and effective reconstructive treatment option for a ruptured VBA-DA. The technique may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients with ruptured VBA-DAs unsuitable for internal trapping of the parent artery.