Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sandy Goncalves x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Kayla Ryan, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

The authors used functional MRI to assess cortical reorganization of the motor network after chronic spinal cord compression and to characterize the plasticity that occurs following surgical intervention.

METHODS

A 3-T MRI scanner was used to acquire functional images of the brain in 22 patients with reversible cervical spinal cord compression and 10 control subjects. Controls performed a finger-tapping task on 3 different occasions (baseline, 6-week follow-up, and 6-month follow-up), whereas patients performed the identical task before surgery and again 6 weeks and 6 months after spinal decompression surgery.

RESULTS

After surgical intervention, an increased percentage blood oxygen level–dependent signal and volume of activation was observed within the contralateral and ipsilateral motor network. The volume of activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex was associated with functional measures both at baseline (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) and 6 months after surgery (r = 0.55, p < 0.01). The percentage blood oxygen level–dependent signal of the ipsilateral supplementary motor area 6 months after surgery was associated with increased function 6 months after surgery (r = 0.48, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Plasticity of the contralateral and ipsilateral motor network plays complementary roles in maintaining neurological function in patients with spinal cord compression and may be critical in the recovery phase following surgery.

Restricted access

Mohammed Ali Alvi, Redab Alkhataybeh, Waseem Wahood, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sandy Goncalves, M. Hassan Murad and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Transpsoas lateral interbody fusion is one of the lateral minimally invasive approaches for lumbar spine surgery. Most surgeons insert the interbody cage laterally and then insert pedicle or cortical screw and rod instrumentation posteriorly. However, standalone cages have also been used to avoid posterior instrumentation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on comparison of the two approaches is sparse.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature on transpsoas lateral interbody fusion by an electronic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases using PRISMA guidelines. They compared patients undergoing transpsoas standalone fusion (TP) with those undergoing transpsoas fusion with posterior instrumentation (TPP).

RESULTS

A total of 28 studies with 1462 patients were included. Three hundred and seventy-four patients underwent TPP, and 956 patients underwent TP. The mean patient age ranged from 45.7 to 68 years in the TP group, and 50 to 67.7 years in the TPP group. The incidence of reoperation was found to be higher for TP (0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.01–0.06; p = 0.057). Similarly, the incidence of cage movement was found to be greater in TP (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.26) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.00–0.05; p < 0.001). Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and postoperative transient deficits were found to be comparable between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

These results appear to suggest that addition of posterior instrumentation to transpsoas fusion is associated with decreased reoperations and cage movements. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be reevaluated in light of these results, which seem to suggest that higher reoperation and subsidence rates may be due to the use of the standalone technique.

Full access

Izabela Aleksanderek, Todd K. Stevens, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to compare the recovery of neuronal metabolism and functional reorganization in the primary motor cortex (M1) between mild and moderate cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) following surgical intervention.

METHODS

Twenty-eight patients with CSM underwent 3-T MRI scans that included spectroscopy and functional MRI, before surgery and 6 months postsurgery. The classification of severity was based on the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association questionnaire. Mild and moderate myelopathy were defined by modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores > 12 of 18 (n = 15) and 9–12 (n = 13), respectively. Ten healthy control subjects underwent 2 MRI scans 6 months apart. Metabolite levels were measured in the M1 contralateral to the greater deficit side in patients with CSM and on both sides in the controls. Motor function was assessed using a right finger–tapping paradigm and analyzed with BrainVoyager QX.

RESULTS

Patients with mild CSM had a lower preoperative N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio compared with moderate CSM, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Postsurgery, NAA/Cr in moderate CSM decreased to the levels observed in mild CSM. Preoperatively, patients with mild CSM had a larger volume of activation (VOA) in the M1 than those with moderate CSM. Postoperatively, the VOAs were comparable between the mild and moderate CSM groups and had shifted toward the primary sensory cortex.

CONCLUSIONS

The NAA/Cr ratio and VOA size in the M1 can be used to discriminate between mild and moderate CSM. Postsurgery, the metabolite profile of the M1 did not recover in either group, despite significant clinical improvement. The authors proposed that metabolic impairment in the M1 may trigger the recruitment of adjacent healthy cortex to achieve functional recovery.

Full access

Amparo Wolf, Sandy Goncalves, Fateme Salehi, Jeff Bird, Paul Cooper, Stan Van Uum, Donald H. Lee, Brian W. Rotenberg and Neil Duggal

OBJECT

The relationship between headaches, pituitary adenomas, and surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas remains unclear. The authors assessed the severity and predictors of self-reported headaches in patients referred for surgery of pituitary adenomas and evaluated the impact of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery on headache severity and quality of life (QOL).

METHODS

In this prospective study, 79 patients with pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection and completed the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) QOL questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively.

RESULTS

Preoperatively, 49.4% of patients had mild headache severity, 13.9% had moderate severity, 13.9% had substantial severity, and 22.8% had intense severity. Younger age and hormone-producing tumors predisposed greater headache severity, while tumor volume, suprasellar extension, chiasmal compression, and cavernous sinus invasion of the pituitary tumors did not. Preoperative headache severity was found to be significantly associated with reduced scores across all SF-36 QOL dimensions and most significantly associated with mental health. By 6 months postoperatively, headache severity was reduced in a significant proportion of patients. Of the 40 patients with headaches causing an impact on daily living (moderate, substantial, or intense headache), 70% had improvement of at least 1 category on HIT-6 by 6 months postoperatively, while headache worsened in 7.6% of patients. The best predictors of headache response to surgery included younger age, poor preoperative SF-36 mental health score, and hormone-producing microadenoma.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study confirm that surgery can significantly improve headaches in patients with pituitary adenomas by 6 months postoperatively, particularly in younger patients whose preoperative QOL is impacted. A larger multicenter study is underway to evaluate the long-term effect of surgery on headaches in this patient group.

Full access

Sandy Goncalves, Todd K. Stevens, Patricia Doyle-Pettypiece, Robert Bartha and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of reversible spinal cord dysfunction in people over the age of 55 years. Following surgery for symptomatic CSM, patients demonstrate motor improvement early in the postoperative course, whereas sensory improvement can lag behind. The authors of the present study hypothesized that changes in the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the motor and sensory cortices in the brain would emulate the time course of neurological recovery following decompression surgery for CSM. Their aim was to compare and contrast how metabolite levels in the motor and sensory cortices change after surgery to reverse downstream spinal cord compression.

METHODS

Twenty-four patients with CSM and 8 control subjects were studied using proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) images acquired on a 3.0-T Siemens MRI unit. The 1H-MRS data (TE 135 msec, TR 2000 msec) were acquired to measure absolute levels of NAA from the motor and sensory cortices in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the side of greater deficit at baseline in each subject. Data were also acquired at 6 weeks and 6 months following surgery. Control subjects were also evaluated at 6 weeks and 6 months following baseline data acquisition. Neurological function was measured in each subject at all time points using the Neck Disability Index (NDI), modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) questionnaire, and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) neurological classification.

RESULTS

In the motor cortex of patients, NAA levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 6 months postsurgery compared with baseline levels. In the sensory cortex of patients, NAA levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only at 6 months after surgery compared with baseline and 6-week levels. No significant changes in NAA were found in control subjects. Clinical scores demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) motor recovery by 6 weeks, whereas sensory improvements (p < 0.05) appeared at only 6 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings suggest that metabolite changes in both the motor and sensory cortices mimic the time course of functional motor and sensory recovery in patients with CSM. The temporal course of neurological recovery may be influenced by metabolic changes in respective cortical regions.

Full access

Amparo Wolf, Alexandra Coros, Joel Bierer, Sandy Goncalves, Paul Cooper, Stan Van Uum, Donald H. Lee, Alain Proulx, David Nicolle, J. Alexander Fraser, Brian W. Rotenberg and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas has been reported to improve vision function in up to 80%–90% of patients with visual impairment due to these adenomas. It is unclear how these reported rates translate into improvement in visual outcomes and general health as perceived by the patients. The authors evaluated self-assessed health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and vision-related QOL (VR-QOL) in patients before and after endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas.

METHODS

The authors prospectively collected data from 50 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This cohort included 32 patients (64%) with visual impairment preoperatively. Twenty-seven patients (54%) had pituitary dysfunction, including 17 (34%) with hormone-producing tumors. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey preoperatively and 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS

Patients with preoperative visual impairment reported a significant impact of this condition on VR-QOL preoperatively, including general vision, near activities, and peripheral vision; they also noted vision-specific impacts on mental health, role difficulties, dependency, and driving. After endoscopic resection of adenomas, patients reported improvement across all these categories 6 weeks postoperatively, and this improvement was maintained by 6 months postoperatively. Patients with preoperative pituitary dysfunction, including hormone-producing tumors, perceived their general health and physical function as poorer, with some of these patients reporting improvement in perceived general health after the endoscopic surgery. All patients noted that their ability to work or perform activities of daily living was transiently reduced 6 weeks postoperatively, followed by significant improvement by 6 months after the surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Both VR-QOL and patient's perceptions of their ability to do work and perform other daily activities as a result of their physical health significantly improved by 6 months after endoscopic resection of pituitary adenoma. The use of multidimensional QOL questionnaires provides a precise assessment of perceived outcomes after endoscopic surgery.

Restricted access

Mohammed Ali Alvi, Redab Alkhataybeh, Waseem Wahood, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sandy Goncalves, M. Hassan Murad and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Transpsoas lateral interbody fusion is one of the lateral minimally invasive approaches for lumbar spine surgery. Most surgeons insert the interbody cage laterally and then insert pedicle or cortical screw and rod instrumentation posteriorly. However, standalone cages have also been used to avoid posterior instrumentation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on comparison of the two approaches is sparse.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature on transpsoas lateral interbody fusion by an electronic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases using PRISMA guidelines. They compared patients undergoing transpsoas standalone fusion (TP) with those undergoing transpsoas fusion with posterior instrumentation (TPP).

RESULTS

A total of 28 studies with 1462 patients were included. Three hundred and seventy-four patients underwent TPP, and 956 patients underwent TP. The mean patient age ranged from 45.7 to 68 years in the TP group, and 50 to 67.7 years in the TPP group. The incidence of reoperation was found to be higher for TP (0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.01–0.06; p = 0.057). Similarly, the incidence of cage movement was found to be greater in TP (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.26) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.00–0.05; p < 0.001). Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and postoperative transient deficits were found to be comparable between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

These results appear to suggest that addition of posterior instrumentation to transpsoas fusion is associated with decreased reoperations and cage movements. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be reevaluated in light of these results, which seem to suggest that higher reoperation and subsidence rates may be due to the use of the standalone technique.