Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 54 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sandi Lam x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Sandi Lam and Larry T. Khoo

Object

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures used to treat persistently symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Both interventions usually involve injection of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The purpose of this technical note was to review the theory and surgical technique for a novel percutaneous system for fracture reduction and stabilization of VCFs by using bone graft.

Methods

This technical note highlights the Optimesh system as an alternative method of minimally invasive VCF reduction and stabilization with the delivery of a bone graft containment device. Instead of using PMMA as in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, this system allows the delivery of allograft and/or autograft bone, with its osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic properties.

Conclusions

This system allows for restoration of sagittal alignment of the spine with direct control of bone graft delivery by using a mesh graft containment device that allows for ingrowth of new bone and vascular tissue.

Restricted access

Sandi Lam, Ramesh Grandhi and Stephanie Greene

Meconium staining of open myelomeningoceles has been reported to occur both prenatally and postnatally, but meconium staining of the brainstem has not been previously documented. The authors present a case of meconium staining of the brainstem in an infant with a meconium-stained myelomeningocele, Chiari malformation Type II, and hydrocephalus and discuss possible implications for prenatal and perinatal care.

Full access

Dominic A. Harris and Sandi Lam

Object

The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been well characterized given its rarity in the pediatric population. Investigation of risk factors for VTE in this group requires the use of a large sample size. Using nationally representative hospital discharge data for 2009, the authors of this study characterize the incidence and risk factors for VTE in children hospitalized for TBI.

Methods

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database to examine VTE in TBI-associated hospitalizations for patients 20 years of age or younger during the year 2009.

Results

There were 58,529 children with TBI-related admissions, including 267 with VTE diagnoses. Venous thromboembolisms occurred in 4.6 per 1000 TBI-associated hospitalizations compared with 1.2 per 1000 pediatric hospitalizations overall. By adjusted logistic regression, patients significantly more likely to be diagnosed with VTE had the following: older age of 15–20 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7, 95% CI 1.8–8.0), venous catheterization (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0–4.6), mechanical ventilation (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.9), tracheostomy (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0), nonaccidental trauma (aOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–6.9), increased length of stay (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), orthopedic surgery (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8–3.4), and cranial surgery (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8).

Conclusions

Using the Kids' Inpatient Database, the authors found that risk factors for VTE in the setting of TBI in the pediatric population include older age, venous catheterization, nonaccidental trauma, increased length of hospital stay, orthopedic surgery, and cranial surgery.

Restricted access

Sandi Lam, Ulrich Batzdorf and Marvin Bergsneider

Object

The most commonly reported treatment of primary syringomyelia has been laminectomy with duraplasty or direct shunting from the syrinx cavity. Diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the spinal subarachnoid space to peritoneal, atrial, or pleural cavities has been described previously in only a few case reports. Shunting of the CSF from the subarachnoid space rostral to the level of myelographic blockage may reduce the filling force of the syrinx cavity and avoids myelotomy and manipulation of the spinal cord parenchyma. The authors report on 7 patients who underwent thecal shunt placement for primary spinal syringomyelia.

Methods

This study is a retrospective review of a consecutive series. The authors reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging studies of 7 adult patients with posttraumatic, postsurgical, or postinflammatory syringomyelia treated with thecoperitoneal, thecopleural, or thecoatrial shunt placement at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center. Myelographic evidence of partial or complete CSF flow obstruction was confirmed in the majority of patients. The mean duration of follow-up was 33 months (range 6–104 months).

Results

Six (86%) of 7 patients showed signs of clinical improvement, whereas 1 remained with stable clinical symptoms. Of the 6 patients with available postoperative imaging, each demonstrated a reduction in syrinx size. Three patients (43%) had ≥ 1 complication, including shunt-induced cerebellar tonsillar descent in 1 patient and infections in 2.

Conclusions

If laminectomy with duraplasty is not possible for the treatment of primary syringomyelia, placement of a thecoperitoneal shunt (or thecal shunt to another extrathecal cavity) should be considered. Although complications occurred in 3 of 7 patients, the complication rate was outweighed by a relatively high symptomatic and imaging improvement rate.

Free access

Christopher M. Bonfield, Sandi Lam, Yimo Lin and Stephanie Greene

Object

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are significant independent public health concerns in the pediatric population. This study explores the impact of a premorbid diagnosis of ADHD on outcome following mild TBI.

Methods

The charts of all patients with a diagnosis of mild closed head injury (CHI) and ADHD who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between January 2003 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed after institutional review board approval was granted. Patient demographics, initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, hospital course, and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) score were recorded. The results were compared with a sample of age-matched controls admitted with a diagnosis of CHI without ADHD.

Results

Forty-eight patients with mild CHI and ADHD, and 45 patients with mild CHI without ADHD were included in the statistical analysis. Mild TBI due to CHI was defined as an initial GCS score of 13–15. The ADHD group had a mean age of 12.2 years (range 6–17 years), and the control group had a mean age of 11.14 years (range 5–16 years). For patients with mild TBI who had ADHD, 25% were moderately disabled (KOSCHI Score 4b), and 56% had completely recovered (KOSCHI Score 5b) at follow-up. For patients with mild TBI without ADHD, 2% were moderately disabled and 84% had completely recovered at follow-up (p < 0.01). Patients with ADHD were statistically significantly more disabled after mild TBI than were control patients without ADHD, even when controlling for age, sex, initial GCS score, hospital length of stay, length of follow-up, mechanism of injury, and presence of other (extracranial) injury.

Conclusions

Patients who sustain mild TBIs in the setting of a premorbid diagnosis of ADHD are more likely to be moderately disabled by the injury than are patients without ADHD.

Full access

Aditya Vedantam, Daniel Hansen, Bradley Daniels and Sandi Lam

The authors report an unusual case of acute, rapidly progressive, unilateral neck swelling following extubation after elective left anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy. Due to severe neck swelling, the patient developed critical airway compromise, brachial plexopathy, and Horner's syndrome. After critical airway management and appropriate rehabilitation, the patient recovered completely and remains seizure free at 1.5 years of follow-up.

This case highlights the importance of early recognition of acute postoperative sialadenitis and the steps needed to prevent serious morbidity and possible mortality from this rare complication.

Restricted access

Kathryn Wagner, Francisco Vaz-Guimaraes, Kevin Camstra and Sandi Lam

OBJECTIVE

Appropriately chosen candidates with medically refractory epilepsy may benefit from hemispheric disconnection. Traditionally, this involves a large surgical exposure with significant associated morbidity. Minimally invasive approaches using endoscopic assistance have been described by only a few centers. Here, the authors report on the feasibility of endoscope-assisted functional hemispherotomy in a cadaver model and its first translation into clinical practice in appropriately selected patients.

METHODS

Three silicone-injected, formalin-fixed cadaver heads were used to establish the steps of the procedure in the laboratory. The steps of disconnection were performed using standard surgical instruments and a straight endoscope. The technique was then applied in two patients who had been referred for hemispherectomy and had favorable anatomy for an endoscope-assisted approach.

RESULTS

All disconnections were performed in the cadaver model via a 4 × 2–cm paramedian keyhole craniotomy using endoscopic assistance. An additional temporal burr hole approach was marked in case the authors were unable to completely visualize the frontobasal and insular cuts from the paramedian vertical view. Their protocol was subsequently used successfully in two pediatric patients. Full disconnection was verified with postoperative tractography.

CONCLUSIONS

Full hemispheric disconnection can be accomplished with minimally invasive endoscope-assisted functional hemispherotomy. The procedure is technically feasible and can be safely applied in patients with favorable anatomy and pathology; it may lead to less surgical morbidity and faster recovery.

Free access

Ricky H. Wong, Fabrice Smieliauskas, I-Wen Pan and Sandi K. Lam

OBJECT

Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend’s effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA’s potential for future applications.

METHODS

The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA.

RESULTS

The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention’s immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research.

Full access

Paul D. Kiely and Matthew E. Cunningham