Moyamoya is an uncommon disease that presents with stenoocclusion of the major vasculature at the base of the brain and associated collateral vessel formation. Many pediatric patients with moyamoya present with transient ischemic attacks or complete occlusions. The authors report the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with posterior fossa hemorrhage and was treated with an emergency suboccipital craniotomy for evacuation. After emergency surgery, an angiogram was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with moyamoya disease. Six months later, the patient was treated for moyamoya using direct and indirect revascularization; after surgery there was excellent vascularization in both regions of the bypass and no further progression of moyamoya changes. This case illustrates a rare example of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with moyamoya changes in the posterior vascularization in a pediatric patient and subsequent use of direct and indirect revascularization to reduce the risk of future hemorrhage and moyamoya progression.
Mitchell W. Couldwell, Samuel Cheshier, Philipp Taussky, Vance Mortimer, and William T. Couldwell
Derek Yecies, Paul Graham Fisher, Samuel Cheshier, Michael Edwards, and Gerald Grant
Primarily metastatic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is rare, likely representing 2%–3% of all cases of JPA. Due to the rarity of primarily metastatic JPA, there is currently no standard treatment paradigm and the long-term outcomes are not fully known. The goal of this case series was to add to the current understanding of this disease process.
The authors searched a comprehensive database of pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord tumors treated at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital from 1997 to 2016 and identified 5 patients with primarily metastatic JPA. A retrospective chart review was performed and details of the patients’ treatment and clinical course were recorded for further analysis.
For the 5 patients with primarily metastatic JPA, the mean follow-up period was 12.3 years. All patients in our series had biopsies or subtotal resections and upfront treatment. Three patients were treated with chemotherapy alone, one was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and one was treated with radiotherapy alone. Four patients had stable disease after initial treatment, and one patient had multiple episodes of progressive disease but underwent successful salvage therapy and has had stable disease for 19 years. One patient died of an intracerebral hemorrhage 10 years following initial radiation treatment believed to be secondary to radiation vasculopathy.
Evaluation of the entire neuraxis should be performed in all instances of initial JPA diagnosis to properly assess for primarily metastatic disease. Many patients with primarily metastatic JPA will have stable disease after upfront treatment, although the higher rate of stable disease found in this series relative to other reports is likely secondary to the small sample size.
Samuel Cheshier, Michael D. Taylor, Olivier Ayrault, and Sabine Mueller
Katalin A. Szabo, Samuel H. Cheshier, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Jonathan W. Kim, and Raphael Guzman
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the use of anterior orbitotomy via the supraorbital eyelid crease to repair a dural tear caused by an orbital roof fracture. When transorbital penetrating injuries occur in children, they are commonly caused by accidental falls onto pointed objects. The authors report on their experience with a 7-year-old girl who fell onto a blunt metal rod hanger that penetrated her left eyelid, traversed superior to the eye globe, and penetrated the orbital roof at a depth of 3–4 cm, lacerating the dura mater and entering the cerebrum. An anterior transpalpebral transorbital approach was used to perform the microsurgical anterior skull base and dural repair. The authors advocate the application of this approach to orbital roof fractures because it provides excellent access to the orbital roof, eliminates the need for more invasive craniotomy, results in a small and well-hidden scar in the eye crease, and overall offers a shorter recovery time with less psychological stress to the patient.
Stephen L. Huhn, Yun Yung, Samuel Cheshier, Griffith Harsh, Laurie Ailles, Irving Weissman, Hannes Vogel, and Victor Tse
The goal of this study was to illustrate the findings of a significant subpopulation of cells within a pediatric astroblastoma that have the specific cell surface phenotype found on known human neural stem cells.
Cells with a cell surface marker profile characteristic of human neural stem cells were isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from a mostly nonmitotic astroblastoma removed from the brain of an 11-year-old girl. An unusually high proportion (24%) of the cells were CD133 positive and CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative (CD133+ CD24−CD34−CD45− cells), the phenotypic antigenic pattern associated with neural stem cells; very few CD133-positive cells were not also CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative. Some cells (12%) were CD34 positive, indicating the presence within the tumor of hematopoietic stem cells. Cells formed cytospheres that resembled neurospheres when seeded into stem cell media and coexpressed β-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but did not express the oligodendrocyte marker O4. Cell proliferation was demonstrated by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. The cells lost their capacity for self-renewal in vitro after four to six passages, although they continued to coexpress β-tubulin and GFAP. The cells did not differentiate into neurons or astrocytes when placed in differentiation medium.
Although this astroblastoma contained a high proportion of phenotypic neural stemlike cells, the cells had limited proliferative capacity and multipotency. Their role in astroblastoma formation and growth is unknown.
Jun Jae Shin, Sang Hyun Kim, Yong Eun Cho, Samuel H. Cheshier, and Jon Park
Several controversial issues arise in the management of unstable hangman's fractures. Some surgeons perform external reduction and immobilize the patient's neck in a halo vest, while others perform surgical reduction and internal fixation. The nonsurgical treatments with rigid collar or halo vest immobilization present problems, including nonunion, pseudarthrosis, skull fracture, and scalp laceration and may also fail to achieve anatomical realignment of the local C2–3 kyphosis. With recent advances in surgical technique and technology, surgical intervention is increasingly performed as the primary treatment in high cervical fractures. The outcomes of such surgeries are often superior to those of conservative treatment. The authors propose that surgical intervention as a primary management for hangman's fracture may avoid risks inherent in conservative management when severe circumferential discoligamentous instability is present and may reduce the risk of catastrophic results at the fracture site.
The purposes of this study were to assess fracture healing following expedient reduction and surgical fixation and to propose a guideline for treatment of unstable hangman's fractures.
From April 2006 to December 2011, the authors treated 105 patients with high cervical fractures. This study included 23 (21.9%) of these patients (15 men and 8 women; mean age 46.4 years) with Type II, IIa, and III hangman's fractures according to the Levine and Edwards classification. The patient's age, sex, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, neurological status, and complications were ascertained. The authors retrospectively assessed the clinical outcome (Neck Disability Index), radiological findings (disc height, translation, and angulation), and bony healing.
The average follow-up period was 28.9 months (range 12–63.2 months). The overall average Neck Disability Index score at the time of this study was 6.6 ± 2.3. The average duration of hospitalization was 20.3 days, and fusion was achieved in all cases by 14.8 ± 1.6 weeks after surgery, as demonstrated on dynamic radiographs and cervical 3D CT scans.
The mean pretreatment translation was 6.9 ± 3.2 mm, and the mean postoperative translation was 1.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean reduction 5.2 ± 3.1 mm). The initial angulation was 4.7° ± 5.3° and the postoperative angulation was 2.5° ± 1.8° (mean reduction 6.1° ± 5.3°). The preoperative and postoperative values for translation and angulation differed significantly (p < 0.05). The overall C2–3 disc height was 6.7 ± 1.2 mm preoperatively, whereas 3 months after surgery it was 6.4 ± 1.1 mm. These values did not differ significantly (p = 0.0963).
The authors observed effective reduction and bony healing in cases of unstable hangman's fractures after fixation, and all patients experienced favorable clinical outcomes with neck pain improvement. The protocols allowed for physiological reconstruction of the fractured deformities and avoided external fixation. The authors suggest that posterior reduction and screw fixation should be used as a primary treatment to promote stability of hangman's fracture in the presence of discoligamentous instability or combined fractures.
Robert M. Lober, Raphael Guzman, Samuel H. Cheshier, Douglas R. Fredrick, Michael S. B. Edwards, and Kristen W. Yeom
Magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used in diagnosis and surveillance for optic pathway glioma (OPG). The authors investigated the role of diffusion tensor (DT) tractography in assessing the location of visual pathway fibers in the presence of tumor.
Data in 10 children with OPG were acquired using a 3T MRI generalized autocalibrating parallel acquisitions DT–echo planar imaging sequence (25 isotropic directions with a b value of 1000 seconds/mm2, slice thickness 3 mm). Fiber tractography was performed, with seed regions placed within the optic chiasm and bilateral nerves on the coronal plane, including the tumor and surrounding normal-appearing tissue. Tracking was performed with a curvature threshold of 30°.
For prechiasmatic lesions, fibers either stopped abruptly at the tumor or traversed abnormally dilated nerve segments. Similar findings were seen with chiasmatic lesions, with an additional arrangement in which fibers diverged around the tumor. For each patient, DT tractography provided additional information about visual fiber arrangement in relation to the tumor that was not evident by using conventional MRI methods. Retrospective reconstruction of visual fibers in 1 patient with new postoperative hemianopia revealed an unexpected superior displacement of the optic tract that might have been helpful information had it been applied to preoperative planning or surgical navigation.
Optic pathway DT tractography is feasible in patients with OPG and provides new information about the arrangement of visual fibers in relation to tumors that could be incorporated into surgical navigation for tumor biopsy or debulking procedures.
Alexandra D. Beier, Samuel H. Cheshier, Aabir Chakraborty, and Peter Dirks
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is occasionally seen after hypothalamic injury or dysfunction, although it typically occurs in association with other endocrine disturbances. It is has never been described as a presenting feature of a suprasellar arachnoid cyst (SAC) in the pediatric population. The authors describe the case of an enlarging SAC resulting in SIADH as the only presenting feature, with an otherwise normal hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
An SAC was diagnosed in utero in this 5-month-old girl who had a normal functioning hypothalamic-pituitary axis on presentation. Because of cyst enlargement and hydrocephalus, the patient was scheduled for surgery; however, preoperative labs revealed SIADH. After stabilizing the serum sodium concentration with fluid restriction and the administration of 3% sodium chloride, the patient underwent endoscopic cyst fenestration. Postoperatively, she had complete resolution of the SIADH.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as the presenting symptom of an SAC has not been previously described. In the aforementioned patient, the proposed mechanism for SIADH was enlargement of the suprasellar arachnoid cyst causing compression of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and thus overstimulating the secretion of arginine vasopressin, which resulted in SIADH.
The association of SIADH with an SAC is reportable, as is the resolution of the SIADH via cyst fenestration. The authors suggest that SIADH is an uncommon presenting feature of SACs and that syndrome resolution is possible with cyst decompression.
Jennifer L. Quon, Lily H. Kim, Peter H. Hwang, Zara M. Patel, Gerald A. Grant, Samuel H. Cheshier, and Michael S. B. Edwards
Transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches constitute an essential technique for the resection of skull base tumors in adults. However, in the pediatric population, sellar and suprasellar lesions have historically been treated by craniotomy. Transnasal endoscopic approaches are less invasive and thus may be preferable to craniotomy, especially in children. In this case series, the authors present their institutional experience with transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for pediatric skull base tumors.
The authors retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) who had undergone transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for either biopsy or resection of sellar or suprasellar lesions between 2007 and 2016. All operations were performed jointly by a team of pediatric neurosurgeons and skull base otolaryngologists, except for 8 cases performed by one neurosurgeon.
The series included 42 patients between 4 and 18 years old (average 12.5 years) who underwent 51 operations. Headache (45%), visual symptoms (69%), and symptoms related to hormonal abnormalities (71%) were the predominant presenting symptoms. Improvement in preoperative symptoms was seen in 92% of cases. Most patients had craniopharyngiomas (n = 16), followed by pituitary adenomas (n = 12), Rathke cleft cysts (n = 4), germinomas (n = 4), chordomas (n = 2), and other lesion subtypes (n = 4). Lesions ranged from 0.3 to 6.2 cm (median 2.5 cm) in their greatest dimension. Gross-total resection was primarily performed (63% of cases), with 5 subsequent recurrences. Nasoseptal flaps were used in 47% of cases, fat grafts in 37%, and lumbar drains in 47%. CSF space was entered intraoperatively in 15 cases, and postoperative CSF was observed only in lesions with suprasellar extension. There were 8 cases of new hormonal deficits and 3 cases of new cranial nerve deficits. Length of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 61 days (median 5 days). Patients were clinically followed up for a median of 46 months (range 1–120 months), accompanied by a median radiological follow-up period of 45 months (range 3.8–120 months). Most patients (76%) were offered adjuvant therapy.
In this single-institution report of the transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, the authors demonstrated that this technique is generally safe and effective for different types of pediatric skull base lesions. Favorable effects of surgery were sustained during a follow-up period of 4 years. Further refinement in technology will allow for more widespread use in the pediatric population.
Michael J. Ellis, Samuel Cheshier, Sunjay Sharma, Derek Armstrong, Cynthia Hawkins, Eric Bouffet, James T. Rutka, and Michael D. Taylor
Among the neoplastic conditions that affect patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), which typically arise from peripheral nerves of the limbs, trunk, and lumbar and brachial plexuses. Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for MPNST development, especially in susceptible patients such as those with NF1. Patients with NF1 are also at risk for intracranial aneurysms, which are increasingly being successfully managed with endovascular therapies. The authors describe the case of a 9-year-old, previously healthy girl who presented in extremis with a right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured right middle cerebral artery (MCA) trifurcation aneurysm. Following urgent decompressive craniectomy, the patient underwent endovascular coil embolization of the MCA aneurysm without complication. Given her mother's history of NF1, the child underwent genetic testing, which disclosed signs positive for NF1. The patient recovered well, but follow-up MR imaging and MR angiography performed at 14 months demonstrated a large frontotemporal mass encasing the right MCA trifurcation. The patient underwent frontotemporal craniotomy and subtotal resection of the mass, which was histologically found to be an intracranial MPNST. The patient received chemotherapy and focal radiation therapy and remains alive at 6 months postresection. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the only known case of intracranial neoplasm arising in the region of an intracranial aneurysm repaired by endovascular coil embolization. While patients with NF1 represent a population with genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced tumors, the pathogenesis of intracerebral MPNSTs remains poorly understood.