Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Salomon Cohen-Cohen x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Salomon Cohen-Cohen, Giuseppe Lanzino and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

The extended retrosigmoid approach provides an excellent corridor to the lateral aspect of the pontomedullary junction (PMJ).1,2 This video demonstrates a microsurgical resection of a progressive enlarging cavernous malformation (CM) of the PMJ. The patient is a 33-year-old woman with progressive symptoms, including right facial droop, left hemianesthesia, diplopia, and nystagmus. The patient underwent a right extended retrosigmoid approach with intraoperative neuronavigation and neuromonitoring. Lower cranial nerve dissection allowed access to the lateral PMJ. A longitudinal corticotomy was performed above the glossopharyngeal. The CM was removed in a piecemeal fashion. Postoperative MRI confirmed gross-total resection and the patient remained neurologically stable.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/K_TtiTo1RsQ.

Restricted access

Salomon Cohen-Cohen, Paul A. Gardner, Joao T. Alves-Belo, Huy Q. Truong, Carl H. Snyderman, Eric W. Wang and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

OBJECTIVE

Pituitary adenomas often invade the medial wall of the cavernous sinus (CS), but this structure is generally not surgically removed because of the risk of vascular and cranial nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to report the surgical outcomes in a large series of cases of invasive pituitary adenoma in which the medial wall of the CS was selectively removed following an anatomically based, stepwise surgical technique.

METHODS

The authors’ institutional database was reviewed to identify cases of pituitary adenoma with isolated invasion of the medial wall, based on an intraoperative evaluation, in which patients underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach with selective resection of the medial wall of the CS. Cases with CS invasion beyond the medial wall were excluded. Patient complications, resection, and remission rates were assessed.

RESULTS

Fifty patients were eligible for this study, 15 (30%) with nonfunctional adenomas and 35 (70%) with functional adenomas, including 16 growth hormone–, 10 prolactin-, and 9 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting tumors. The average tumor size was 2.3 cm for nonfunctional and 1.3 cm for functional adenomas. Radiographically, 11 cases (22%) were Knosp grade 1, 23 (46%) Knosp grade 2, and 16 (32%) Knosp grade 3. Complete tumor resection, based on intraoperative impression and postoperative MRI, was achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 30 months (range 4–64 months) for patients with functional adenomas and 16 months (range 4–30 months) for those with nonfunctional adenomas. At last follow-up, complete biochemical remission (using current criteria) without adjuvant treatment was seen in 34 cases (97%) of functional adenoma. No imaging recurrences were seen in patients who had nonfunctional adenomas. A total of 57 medial walls were removed in 50 patients. Medial wall invasion was histologically confirmed in 93% of nonfunctional adenomas and 83% of functional adenomas. There were no deaths or internal carotid artery injuries, and the average blood loss was 378 ml. Four patients (8%) developed a new, transient cranial nerve palsy, and 2 of these patients required reoperation for blood clot evacuation and fat graft removal. There were no permanent cranial nerve palsies.

CONCLUSIONS

The medial wall of the CS can be removed safely and effectively, with minimal morbidity and excellent resection and remission rates. Further follow-up is needed to determine the long-term results of this anatomically based technique, which should only be performed by very experienced endonasal skull base teams.

Full access

Hazem M. Negm, Rafid Al-Mahfoudh, Manish Pai, Harminder Singh, Salomon Cohen, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Regrowth of the lesion after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas is uncommon unless subtotal resection was originally achieved in the first surgery. Treatment for recurrent tumor can involve surgery or radiotherapy. Locations of residual tumor may vary based on the original approach. The authors evaluated the specific sites of residual or recurrent tumor after different transsphenoidal approaches and describe the surgical outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reoperation.

METHODS

The authors analyzed a prospectively collected database of a consecutive series of patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal surgeries for residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after an original transsphenoidal microscopic or endoscopic surgery. The site of the recurrent tumor and outcome after reoperation were noted and correlated with the primary surgical approach. The chi-square or Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare continuous variables between surgical groups.

RESULTS

Forty-one patients underwent surgery for residual/recurrent pituitary adenoma from 2004 to 2015 at Weill Cornell Medical College. The previous treatment was a transsphenoidal microscopic (n = 22) and endoscopic endonasal (n = 19) surgery. In 83.3% patients (n = 30/36) there was postoperative residual tumor after the initial surgery. A residual tumor following endonasal endoscopic surgery was less common in the sphenoid sinus (10.5%; 2/19) than it was after microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (72.7%; n =16/22; p = 0.004). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 58.5%, and either GTR or near-total resection was achieved in 92.7%. Across all cases, the average extent of resection was 93.7%. The rate of GTR was lower in patients with Knosp-Steiner Grade 3–4 invasion (p < 0.0005). Postoperative CSF leak was seen in only one case (2.4%), which stopped with lumbar drainage. Visual fields improved in 52.9% (n = 9/17) of patients and were stable in 47% (n = 8/17). Endocrine remission was achieved in 77.8% (n = 14/18) of cases, 12 by surgery alone and 2 by adjuvant medical (n = 1) and radiation (n = 1) therapy. New diabetes insipidus occurred in 4.9% (n = 2/41) of patients—in one of whom an additional single anterior hormonal axis was compromised—and 9.7% (n = 4/41) of patients had a new anterior pituitary hormonal insufficiency.

CONCLUSIONS

Endonasal endoscopic reoperation is extremely effective at removing recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas that remain after a prior surgery, and it may be preferable to radiation therapy particularly in symptomatic patients. Achievement of GTR is less common when lateral cavernous sinus invasion is present. The locations of residual/recurrent tumor were more likely sphenoidal and parasellar following a prior microscopic transsphenoidal surgery and sellar following a prior endonasal endoscopic surgery.

Full access

Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Harminder Singh, Hazem M. Negm, Salomon Cohen, Mark M. Souweidane, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Craniopharyngiomas can be difficult to remove completely based on their intimate relationship with surrounding visual and endocrine structures. Reoperations are not uncommon but have been associated with higher rates of complications and lower extents of resection. So radiation is often offered as an alternative to reoperation. The endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach has been used in recent years for craniopharyngiomas previously removed with craniotomy. The impact of this approach on reoperations has not been widely investigated.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of endonasal endoscopic resections of craniopharyngiomas over 11 years at Weill Cornell Medical College, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, performed by the senior authors. Reoperations were separated from first operations. Pre- and postoperative visual and endocrine function, tumor size, body mass index (BMI), quality of life (QOL), extent of resection (EOR), impact of prior radiation, and complications were compared between groups. EOR was divided into gross-total resection (GTR, 100%), near-total resection (NTR, > 95%), and subtotal resection (STR, < 95%). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

RESULTS

Of the total 57 endonasal surgical procedures, 22 (39%) were reoperations. First-time operations and reoperations did not differ in tumor volume, radiological configuration, or patients' BMI. Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus (DI) were more common before reoperations (82% and 55%, respectively) compared with first operations (60% and 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). For the 46 patients in whom GTR was intended, rates of GTR and GTR+NTR were not significantly different between first operations (90% and 97%, respectively) and reoperations (80% and 100%, respectively). For reoperations, prior radiation and larger tumor volume had lower rates of GTR. Vision improved equally in first operations (80%) compared with reoperations (73%). New anterior pituitary deficits were more common in first operations compared with reoperations (51% vs 23%, respectively; p = 0.08), while new DI was more common in reoperations compared with first-time operations (80% vs 47%, respectively; p = 0.08). Nonendocrine complications occurred in 2 (3.6%) first-time operations and no reoperations. Tumor regrowth occurred in 6 patients (11%) over a median follow-up of 46 months and was not different between first versus reoperations, but was associated with STR (33%) compared with GTR+NTR (4%; p = 0.02) and with not receiving radiation after STR (67% vs 22%; p = 0.08). The overall BMI increased significantly from 28.7 to 34.8 kg/m2 over 10 years. Six months after surgery, there was a significant improvement in QOL, which was similar between first-time operations and reoperations, and negatively correlated with STR.

CONCLUSIONS

Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal reoperation results in similar EOR, visual outcome, and improvement in QOL as first-time operations, with no significant increase in complications. EOR is more impacted by tumor volume and prior radiation. Reoperations should be offered to patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas and may be preferable to radiation in patients in whom GTR or NTR can be achieved.