Jamie J. Van Gompel, Puya Alikhani, Mark H. Tabor, Harry R. van Loveren, Sivero Agazzi, Sebastien Froelich and A. Samy Youssef
Historically, surgery to the petrous apex has been addressed via craniotomy and open microscopic anterior petrosectomy (OAP). However, with the popularization of endoscopic approaches, the petrous apex can further be approached endonasally by way of an endoscopic endonasal anterior petrosectomy (EAP). Endonasal anterior petrosectomy is a relatively new procedure and has not been compared anatomically with OAP. The authors hypothesized that the EAP and OAP techniques approach different portions of the petrous apex and therefore may have different applications.
Four cadaveric heads were used. An OAP was performed on one side and an EAP was performed on the contralateral side; the limits of bony resection were defined. The extent of bony resection was then evaluated using predissection and postdissection thin-slice CT scans. The comparative resection was then reconstructed using 3D modeling on Brainlab workstations.
The average resection volumes for EAP and OAP were 0.297 cm3 and 0.649 cm3, respectively, representing a comparative percentage of 46% (EAP/OAP). An EAP and OAP achieved resection of 29% and 64% of the total petrous apex volume, respectively. Indeed, EAP addressed the inferior portion of the petrous apex located adjacent to the petroclival suture more completely than OAP, where 45% of the bone overlying the petroclival suture (petroclival angle to the jugular foramen) was resected with the EAP, while 0% was resected with the OAP.
In anatomically normal cadavers, OAP achieved nearly a 50% larger volumetric resection than EAP. Furthermore, while OAP appears to completely address the superior portion of the petrous apex, EAP appears to have a niche in approaches to lesions in the inferior petrous apex. Given these results, the authors propose that OAP be redefined as the “superior anterior petrosectomy,” while EAP be referred to as the “inferior anterior petrosectomy,” which more clearly defines the role of each approach in anterior petrosectomy.
Kenichi Oyama, Kentaro Watanabe, Shunya Hanakita, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Thibault Passeri, Eduard H. Voormolen, Anne Laure Bernat, Nicolas Penet, Takanori Fukushima and Sébastien Froelich
The anteromedial triangle (AMT) is the triangle formed by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) nerves. Opening of this bony space offers a limited access to the sphenoid sinus (SphS). This study aims to demonstrate the utility of the orbitopterygopalatine corridor (OPC), obtained by enlarging the AMT and transposing the contents of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) and V2, as an entrance to the SphS, maxillary sinus (MaxS), and nasal cavity.
Five formalin-injected cadaveric specimens were used for this study (10 approaches). A classic pterional approach was performed. An OPC was created through the inferior orbital fissure, between the orbit and the PPF, by transposing the PPF inferiorly. The extent of the OPC was measured using neuronavigation and manual measurements. Two illustrative cases using the OPC to access skull base tumors are presented in the body of the article.
Via the OPC, the SphS, MaxS, ethmoid sinus (EthS), and nasal cavity could be accessed. The use of endoscopic assistance through the OPC achieved better visualization of the EthS, SphS, MaxS, clivus, and nasal cavity. A significant gain in the area of exposure could be achieved using the OPC compared to the AMT (22.4 mm2 vs 504.1 mm2).
Opening of the AMT and transposition of V2 and the contents of the PPF creates the OPC, a potentially useful deep keyhole to access the paranasal sinuses and clival region through a middle fossa approach. It is a valuable alternative approach to reach deep-seated skull base lesions infiltrating the cavernous sinus and middle cranial fossa and extending into the paranasal sinus.
Philip V. Theodosopoulos, James Leach, Robert G. Kerr, Lee A. Zimmer, Amanda M. Denny, Bharat Guthikonda, Sebastien Froelich and John M. Tew Jr.
Endoscopic approaches to pituitary tumors have become an effective alternative to traditional microscopic transsphenoidal approaches. Despite a proven potential to decrease unexpected residual tumor, intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging is infrequently used even in the few operating environments in which such technology is available. Its use is prohibitive because of its cost, increased complexity, and longer operative times. The authors assessed the potential of intrasellar endoscopy to replace the need for iMR imaging without sacrificing the maximum extent of resection.
In this retrospective study, 27 consecutive patients underwent fully endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas. Intrasellar endoscopy was used to determine the presence of residual tumor within the sella turcica and tumor cavity. Intraoperative MR imaging was used to identify rates of unexpected residual tumor and the need for further tumor resection.
Intraoperative estimates of the extent of tumor resection were correct in 23 patients (85%). Of 4 patients with unacceptable tumor residuals, 3 underwent further tumor resection. After iMR imaging, the rate of successful completion of the planned extent of resection increased to 26 patients (96%). Rates of both endocrinopathy reversal and postoperative complications were consistent with previously published results for microscopic and endoscopic resection techniques.
The findings in this study provided quantitative evidence that intrasellar endoscopy has significant promise for maximizing the extent of tumor resection and is a useful adjunct to surgical approaches to pituitary tumors, particularly when iMR imaging is unavailable. A larger prospective study on the extent of resection following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery would strengthen these findings.