Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata and Ryoichi Ishikawa
Previous studies have shown a relationship between a patient's stage of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and outcome. However, few studies have assessed whether a specific lesion or type of corpus callosum injury (CCI) influences outcome in patients with DAI. The authors investigated the effect of various DAIs and CCIs on outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
The authors retrospectively reviewed 78 consecutive patients with DAI who were seen between May 2004 and March 2010. Outcome was evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (EGOS) 1 year after TBI. Patients with single DAIs had only 1 of the 3 lesions (lobar, CC, or brainstem). Patients with dual DAIs had 2 of these lesions, and those with triple DAIs had all of these lesions. Furthermore, the authors defined single, dual, and triple CCIs by using 3 lesions (genu, body, splenium) in the same way among patients with single (CC) DAIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between these lesions and outcome in patients with DAI.
Fifty patients had single DAIs: 34 in the lobar area, 11 in the CC, and 5 in the brainstem. Twenty had dual DAIs, and 8 had triple DAIs. Of the 11 CCIs, 9 were single and 2 were dual CCIs. Among these lesions, only those in the genu were related to disability. The authors dichotomized patients into those with and without genu lesions, regardless of other injuries. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that a genu lesion (OR 18, 95% CI 2.2–32; p = 0.0021) and a pupillary abnormality (OR 14, 95% CI 1.6–24; p = 0.0068) were associated with disability (EGOS ≤ 6) in patients with DAI.
Regardless of the number of lesions, the existence of a genu lesion suggested disability 1 year after TBI in patients with DAI.
Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Masaki Shinoda, Motoharu Fujii, Osamu Takahashi, Atsushi Murakata, Daisuke Yamamoto, Sosuke Sumiyoshi and Ryoichi Ishikawa
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is widely regarded as one element of a complex involving severe blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI); corpus callosum injury (CCI) is recently considered to be one factor associated with poor outcome in patients with TBI. Although postmortem studies have focused on the relationship between IVH and CCI, there have been few investigations of IVH evidenced on CT scans as a predictor of CCI evidenced on MRI.
The authors retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from 371 patients with blunt TBI, without trauma to the face, chest, abdomen, extremities, or pelvic girdle, requiring immediate therapeutic intervention. Their aim was to investigate whether IVH found on CT predicts CCI on MRI. Clinical and radiological data were collected between June 2003 and February 2011. First, the authors classified patients into groups of those with CCI and those without CCI, and they compared clinical and radiological findings between them. Then, they investigated prognostic factors that were related to the development of disability at 6 months after injury. The outcomes at 6 months after injury were evaluated using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E). Finally, the authors evaluated the correlation between the severity of the IVH on CT and the number of CCI lesions on MRI. The severity of the IVH was defined by the number of ventricles in which IVH was seen, and the number of CCI lesions was counted on the MRI study.
On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 2.70 [95% CI 1.10–6.27]), traffic accident (OR 2.59 [95% CI 1.37–4.93]), and IVH on CT (OR 3.31 [95% CI 1.25–8.49]) were significantly related to CCI. Multivariate analysis also showed that older age (p = 0.0001), male sex (OR 3.26 [95% CI 1.46–8.08], p = 0.0065), Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (OR 8.27 [95% CI 3.39–21.4], p < 0.0001), evidence of IVH on CT (OR 4.09 [95% CI 1.45–11.9], p = 0.0081), and evidence of CCI on MRI (OR 8.32 [95% CI 3.89–18.8], p < 0.0001) were associated with future development of disability (GOS-E score ≤6). Furthermore, simple regression analysis revealed the existence of a strong correlation between the severity of IVH and the number of CCI lesions (r = 0.0668, p = 0.0022).
The authors' results suggest that evidence of IVH on CT may indicate CCI, which can lead to disability in patients with isolated blunt TBI.
Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Motoharu Fujii, Masaki Shinoda, Osamu Takahashi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Atsushi Murakata and Ryoichi Ishikawa
It is well known that spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissection (siVAD) is an important cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The factors that influence whether SAH develops, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical characteristics and imaging findings are different in patients with siVAD with SAH compared to those with siVAD without SAH.
The authors conducted a retrospective, single-institution study involving patients in whom siVAD developed with or without SAH, between July 2003 and November 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate clinical characteristics and MR angiography findings. The vertebral-union-basilar angle (VUBA) was defined as the most acute angle between line of the basilar artery trunk and line of the vertebral angle (VA) at the vertebral union on 3D MR angiograms.
Among 58 patients with siVAD, 21 developed SAH. The presence of siVAD and SAH was significantly associated with higher rates of current smoking (OR 13; 95% CI 3.6–38; p < 0.0001), dissection of the dominant VA (OR 9.2; 95% CI 2.5–19; p = 0.0004), and unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms (OR 11; 95% CI 2.1–19; p = 0.0025), and the VUBA of the dominant VA was significantly larger (p < 0.0001, univariate analysis). Multivariate analysis showed that these differences were still significant (p < 0.05).
A larger VUBA of the dominant VA, the presence of unruptured supratentorial nondissecting saccular aneurysms, and current smoking may be factors that predict which patients with siVAD will develop SAH by dominant VAD.