Badih Daou, Edison P. Valle-Giler, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Ryan Hebert and Pascal Jabbour
The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become an effective treatment strategy for some cerebral aneurysms. Concerns regarding the patency of branch arteries have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) following treatment of PCoA aneurysms using the PED.
All patients with PCoA aneurysms treated with the PED who had angiographic follow-up were retrospectively identified. The patency of the PCoA at follow-up was evaluated by 2 authors who were not involved in the intervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the following: 1) PCoA patency versus no or diminished flow, and 2) PCoA patency and diminished flow versus PCoA occlusion.
Thirty patients with an angiographic follow-up of 6 months were included. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 25 patients (83.3%). The PCoA was patent in 7 patients (23.3%), had diminished flow in 7 patients (23.3%), and was occluded in 16 patients (53.3%). In the univariate analysis of outcome, there was a trend for aneurysms with incomplete occlusion, aneurysms not previously treated, those with presence of a fetal PCoA, and those with an artery coming from the aneurysm to have higher odds of the PCoA remaining patent. In univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with outcome, fetal PCoA and presence of an artery coming from the aneurysm were associated with the PCoA remaining open with or without diminished flow. No patients had symptoms related to PCoA occlusion.
Occlusion and diminished flow through the PCoA is common following PED treatment of PCoA aneurysms. However, it is clinically insignificant in most cases.
Andy J. Redmond, Michael L. DiLuna, Ryan Hebert, Jennifer A. Moliterno, Rani Desai, Jonathan P. S. Knisely and Veronica L. Chiang
Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) improves overall survival in patients with malignant melanoma metastatic to the brain. In this study the authors investigated which patient- or treatment-specific factors influence survival of patients with melanoma brain metastases; they pay particular interest to pre- and post-GKS hemorrhage.
Demographic, treatment, and survival data on 59 patients with a total of 208 intracranial metastases who underwent GKS between 1998 and 2007 were abstracted from treatment records and from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors that independently affected survival.
Survival was significantly better in patients with solitary metastasis (p = 0.04), lesions without evidence of pre-GKS hemorrhage (p = 0.004), and in patients with total tumor volume treated < 4 cm3 (p = 0.02). Intratumoral bleeding occurred in 23.7% of patients pre-GKS. Intratumoral bleeding occurred at a mean of 1.8 months post-GKS at a rate of 15.2%. Unlike the marked effect of pretreatment bleeding, posttreatment bleeding did not independently affect survival. Sex, systemic control, race, metastases location, whole-brain radiation therapy, chemotherapy, history of antithrombotic medications, and cranial surgery had no independent association with survival.
These data corroborate previous findings that tumor burden (either as increased number or total volume of lesions) at the time of GKS is associated with diminished patient survival in those with intracerebral melanoma metastases. Patients who were noted to have hemorrhagic melanoma metastases prior to GKS appear to have a worse prognosis following GKS compared with patients with nonhemorrhagic metastases, despite similar rates of bleeding pre- and post-GKS treatment. Gamma Knife surgery itself does not appear to increase the rate of hemorrhage.
Branden J. Cord, Sreeja Kodali, Sumita Strander, Andrew Silverman, Anson Wang, Fouad Chouairi, Andrew B. Koo, Cindy Khanh Nguyen, Krithika Peshwe, Alexandra Kimmel, Carl M. Porto, Ryan M. Hebert, Guido J. Falcone, Kevin N. Sheth, Lauren H. Sansing, Joseph L. Schindler, Charles C. Matouk and Nils H. Petersen
While the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) has been clearly established, difficult vascular access may make the intervention impossible or unduly prolonged. In this study, the authors evaluated safety as well as radiographic and functional outcomes in stroke patients treated with MT via direct carotid puncture (DCP) for prohibitive vascular access.
The authors retrospectively studied patients from their prospective AIS-LVO database who underwent attempted MT between 2015 and 2018. Patients with prohibitive vascular access were divided into two groups: 1) aborted MT (abMT) after failed transfemoral access and 2) attempted MT via DCP. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Associations with outcome were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression.
Of 352 consecutive patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO who underwent attempted MT, 37 patients (10.5%) were deemed to have prohibitive vascular access (mean age [± SD] 82 ± 11 years, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 17 ± 5, with females accounting for 75% of the patients). There were 20 patients in the DCP group and 17 in the abMT group. The two groups were well matched for the known predictors of clinical outcome: age, sex, and admission NIHSS score. Direct carotid access was successfully obtained in 19 of 20 patients. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3) was achieved in 16 (84%) of 19 patients in the DCP group. Carotid access complications included an inability to catheterize the carotid artery in 1 patient, neck hematomas in 4 patients, non–flow-limiting common carotid artery (CCA) dissections in 2 patients, and a delayed, fatal carotid blowout in 1 patient. The neck hematomas and non–flow-limiting CCA dissections did not require any subsequent interventions and remained clinically silent. Compared with the abMT group, patients in the DCP group had smaller infarct volumes (11 vs 48 ml, p = 0.04), a greater reduction in NIHSS score (−4 vs +2.9, p = 0.03), and better functional outcome (shift analysis for 3-month modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.02–24.5; p = 0.048).
DCP for emergency MT in patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO and prohibitive vascular access is safe and effective and is associated with higher recanalization rates, smaller infarct volumes, and improved functional outcome compared with patients with abMT after failed transfemoral access. DCP should be considered in this patient population.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010