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Giulia Cossu, Tyler Atkins, Steven D. Hajdu, Francesco Puccinelli, Roy T. Daniel, and Mahmoud Messerer

Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare complication after transsphenoidal surgery with only 10 cases published (Ahuja et al., 1992; Cinar et al., 2013; Cossu et al., 2020; Dolenc et al., 1999; Kalia et al., 2009; Karaman et al., 2009; Kocer et al., 2002; Koitschev et al., 2006; Pigott et al., 1989; Takahashi et al., 1969). Intraoperative findings vary from unrecognized events to life-threatening hemorrhages.

We provide a description of the management of an acute CCF occurring during sphenoidotomy in a patient with pituitary apoplexy. Osteotomy performed in the rostrum resulted in a fracture, which extended toward the intracavernous carotid artery.

Bleeding was managed with mechanical compression. Endovascular treatment allowed closure of the fistula through transarterial coiling and glue. Arterial patency was preserved and the patient had no new neurological deficit.

Drilling should be considered over osteotomy for the anterior sphenoidotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/0Me23xIVeNI.

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Gabriel Yin Foo Lee, Roy T. Daniel, and Nigel R. Jones

✓ The authors report on a patient who presented with shunt failure due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) following in vitro fertilization treatment. Shunt dysfunction was attributed to intraabdominal hypertension as a consequence of ascites. At surgery, the shunt was found to be patent. The peritoneal catheter was externalized and subsequently revised to become a ventriculoatrial shunt system. This led to clinical improvement in the patient and restoration of ventricular size. Such a shunt complication has not previously been reported. Neurosurgeons should be alerted to this possibility in view of the increasing use of assisted conception in many developed countries.

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Roy Xiao, Jacob A. Miller, Navin C. Sabharwal, Daniel Lubelski, Vincent J. Alentado, Andrew T. Healy, Thomas E. Mroz, and Edward C. Benzel

OBJECTIVE

Improvements in imaging technology have steadily advanced surgical approaches. Within the field of spine surgery, assistance from the O-arm Multidimensional Surgical Imaging System has been established to yield superior accuracy of pedicle screw insertion compared with freehand and fluoroscopic approaches. Despite this evidence, no studies have investigated the clinical relevance associated with increased accuracy. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes following thoracolumbar spinal fusion associated with O-arm–assisted navigation. The authors hypothesized that increased accuracy achieved with O-arm–assisted navigation decreases the rate of reoperation secondary to reduced hardware failure and screw misplacement.

METHODS

A consecutive retrospective review of all patients who underwent open thoracolumbar spinal fusion at a single tertiary-care institution between December 2012 and December 2014 was conducted. Outcomes assessed included operative time, length of hospital stay, and rates of readmission and reoperation. Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling, with surgeon as a random effect, was used to investigate the association between O-arm–assisted navigation and postoperative outcomes.

RESULTS

Among 1208 procedures, 614 were performed with O-arm–assisted navigation, 356 using freehand techniques, and 238 using fluoroscopic guidance. The most common indication for surgery was spondylolisthesis (56.2%), and most patients underwent a posterolateral fusion only (59.4%). Although O-arm procedures involved more vertebral levels compared with the combined freehand/fluoroscopy cohort (4.79 vs 4.26 vertebral levels; p < 0.01), no significant differences in operative time were observed (4.40 vs 4.30 hours; p = 0.38). Patients who underwent an O-arm procedure experienced shorter hospital stays (4.72 vs 5.43 days; p < 0.01). O-arm–assisted navigation trended toward predicting decreased risk of spine-related readmission (0.8% vs 2.2%, risk ratio [RR] 0.37; p = 0.05) and overall readmissions (4.9% vs 7.4%, RR 0.66; p = 0.07). The O-arm was significantly associated with decreased risk of reoperation for hardware failure (2.9% vs 5.9%, RR 0.50; p = 0.01), screw misplacement (1.6% vs 4.2%, RR 0.39; p < 0.01), and all-cause reoperation (5.2% vs 10.9%, RR 0.48; p < 0.01). Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that O-arm–assisted navigation was a significant predictor of decreased risk of reoperation (HR 0.49; p < 0.01). The protective effect of O-arm–assisted navigation against reoperation was durable in subset analysis of procedures involving < 5 vertebral levels (HR 0.44; p = 0.01) and ≥ 5 levels (HR 0.48; p = 0.03). Further subset analysis demonstrated that O-arm–assisted navigation predicted decreased risk of reoperation among patients undergoing posterolateral fusion only (HR 0.39; p < 0.01) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), but not posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate clinical outcomes associated with O-arm–assisted navigation following thoracolumbar spinal fusion. O-arm–assisted navigation decreased the risk of reoperation to less than half the risk associated with freehand and fluoroscopic approaches. Future randomized controlled trials to corroborate the findings of the present study are warranted.

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Daniele Starnoni, Giulia Cossu, Rodolfo Maduri, Constantin Tuleasca, Mercy George, Raphael Maire, Mahmoud Messerer, Marc Levivier, Etienne Pralong, and Roy T. Daniel

OBJECTIVE

Cochlear nerve preservation during surgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS) may be challenging. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and cochlear compound nerve action potentials have clearly shown their limitations in surgeries for large VSs. In this paper, the authors report their preliminary results after direct electrical intraoperative cochlear nerve stimulation and recording of the postauricular muscle response (PAMR) during resection of large VSs.

METHODS

The details for the electrode setup, stimulation, and recording parameters are provided. Data of patients for whom PAMR was recorded during surgery were prospectively collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

PAMRs were recorded in all patients at the ipsilateral vertex-earlobe scalp electrode, and in 90% of the patients they were also observed in the contralateral electrode. The optimal stimulation intensity was found to be 1 mA at 1 Hz, with a good cochlear response and an absent response from other nerves. At that intensity, the ipsilateral cochlear response had an initial peak at a mean (± SEM) latency of 11.6 ± 1.5 msec with an average amplitude of 14.4 ± 5.4 µV. One patient experienced a significant improvement in his audition, while that of the other patients remained stable.

CONCLUSIONS

PAMR monitoring may be useful in mapping the position and trajectory of the cochlear nerve to enable hearing preservation during surgery.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010