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Georgios A. Maragkos, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Aristotelis S. Filippidis and Efstathios Papavassiliou

Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (LIUDs) are thought to release this progestin locally in the uterus to limit side effects. Authors here present a case of treatment-refractory hydrocephalus and pseudomeningocele (PMC), both of which fully resolved after LIUD removal.

A 35-year-old woman with an implanted LIUD developed symptomatic PMC and hydrocephalus after suboccipital craniectomy for Chiari malformation type I. Over the next 8 months, she underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and two attempts at needle decompression of the fluid collection, which did not relieve her symptoms or the PMC, except for a few days at a time. Subsequently, she had her LIUD removed. Three weeks after removal of the LIUD, her symptoms as well as the fluid collection resolved completely without any further intervention. Thus, the increased intracranial pressure and associated persistence of the PMC may be partially attributed to the LIUD.

This case indicates that a persistent problem (PMC and intracranial hypertension) that may be associated with the LIUD rapidly resolves after its removal. Implication of LIUDs as the cause of intracranial hypertension is still a matter of controversy. Further studies are needed to evaluate any potential causal relationship between LIUDs and intracranial hypertension, and physicians are advised to consider this scenario in their differential diagnosis.

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Siyu Shi, Raghav Gupta, Justin M. Moore, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Ajith J. Thomas and Christopher S. Ogilvy

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are traditionally considered congenital lesions, arising from aberrant vascular development during the intrauterine period. Rarely, however, AVMs develop in the postnatal period. Individual case reports of de novo AVM formation in both pediatric and adult patients have challenged the traditional dogma of a congenital origin. Instead, for these cases, a dynamic picture is emerging of AVM growth and development, initially triggered by ischemic and/or traumatic events, coupled with genetic predispositions. A number of pathophysiological descriptions involving aberrant angiogenic responses following trauma, hemorrhage, or inflammation have been proposed, although the exact etiology of these lesions remains to be elucidated. Here, the authors present 2 cases of de novo AVM formation in adult patients. The first case involves the development of an AVM following a venous sinus thrombosis and to the authors' knowledge is the first of its kind to be reported in the literature. They also present a case in which an elderly patient with a previously ruptured AVM developed a second AVM in the contralateral hemisphere 11 years later. In addition to presenting these cases, the authors propose a possible mechanism for de novo AVM development in adult patients following ischemic injury.

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Mohammad Ali Bitaraf, Mazdak Alikhani, Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Alireza Zahiri, Mahmoud Allahverdi and Soraya Salmanian


Glomus jugulare tumors (GJT) have traditionally been treated by surgery or fractionated external-beam radiotherapy. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the tumor control rate, clinical outcome, and short-term complications of stereotactic radiosurgery in subsets of patients who are poor candidates for these procedures, based on age, medical problems, tumor size, or prior treatment failure.


The Leksell Gamma Knife was used to treat 16 patients harboring symptomatic, residual, recurrent, or unresectable GJTs. The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 77 years (median 46.5 years). Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) was performed as primary treatment in five patients (31.3%). Microsurgery preceded radiosurgery in 10 patients (62.5%) and fractionated radiotherapy in three patients (18.8%). The median tumor volume was 9.8 cm3 (range 1.7–20.6 cm3). The median marginal dose applied to a mean isodose volume of 50% (range 37–70%) was 18 Gy (range 14–20 Gy).

Neurological follow-up examinations revealed improved clinical status in 10 patients (62.5%), a stable neurological status in six (37.5%), and no complications. After radiosurgery, follow-up imaging was conducted in 14 patients; the median interval from GKS to the last follow up was 18.5 months (range 4–28 months). Tumor size had decreased in six patients (42.9%), and the volume remained unchanged in the remaining eight (57.1%). None of the tumors increased in volume during the observation period.


According to the authors' experience, GKS represents a useful therapeutic option to control symptoms and may be safely conducted in patients with primary or recurrent GJTs with no death and no acute morbidity. Because of the tumor's naturally slow growth rate, however, long-term follow-up data are needed to establish a cure rate after radiosurgery.

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Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Martina Stippler, Siyu Shi, Nimer Adeeb, Raghav Gupta, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Efstathios Papavassiliou, Ekkehard M. Kasper, Jeffrey Arle, Ron L. Alterman, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Ajith J. Thomas


Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is commonly encountered in neurosurgical practice. However, surgical evacuation remains complicated by a high rate of reoperation. The optimal surgical approach to reduce the reoperation rate has not been determined. In the current study, the authors evaluated the prognostic value of clinical and radiographic factors to predict reoperation in the context of CSDH.


A retrospective review of 325 CSDH patients admitted to an academic medical center in the United States, between 2006 and 2016, was performed. Clinical and radiographic factors predictive of the need for CSDH reoperation were identified on univariable and multivariable analyses.


Univariable analysis showed that warfarin use, clopidogrel use, mixed hypo- and isointensity on T1-weighted MRI, greater preoperative midline shift, larger hematoma/fluid residual on first postoperative day CT, lesser decrease in hematoma size after surgery, use of monitored anesthesia care (MAC), and lack of intraoperative irrigation correlated with a significantly higher rate of reoperation. Multivariable analysis, however, showed that only the presence of loculation, clopidogrel or warfarin use, and percent of hematoma change after surgery significantly predicted the need for reoperation. Our results showed that 0% (no reduction), 50%, and 100% hematoma maximum thickness change (complete resolution of hematoma after surgery) were associated with a 41%, 6%, and < 1% rate of reoperation, respectively. The use of drains, either large diameter or small caliber, did not have any effect on the likelihood of reoperation.


Among many factors, clopidogrel or warfarin use, hematoma loculation on preoperative CT, and the amount of hematoma evacuation on the first postoperative CT were the strongest predictors of reoperation.

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Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Ron L. Alterman, Martina Stippler, Kevin Phan, Abdulrahman Y. Alturki, Efstathios Papavassiliou, Ekkehard M. Kasper, Jeffrey Arle, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Ajith J. Thomas


Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has a variety of clinical presentations, including hemiparesis. Hemiparesis is of the utmost importance because it is one of the major indications for surgical intervention and influences outcome. In the current study, the authors intended to identify factors influencing the presence of hemiparesis in CSDH patients and to determine the threshold value of hematoma thickness and midline shift for development of hemiparesis.


The authors retrospectively reviewed 325 patients (266 with unilateral and 59 with bilateral hematomas) with CSDH who underwent surgical evacuation, regardless of presence or absence of hemiparesis.


In univariate analysis, hematoma loculation, age, hematoma maximal thickness, and midline shift were significantly associated with hemiparesis. Moreover, patients with unilateral hematomas had a higher rate of hemiparesis than patients with bilateral hematomas. Sex, trauma history, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use, presence of comorbidities, Glasgow Coma Scale score, hematoma density characteristics on CT scan, and hematoma signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MRI were not associated with hemiparesis. In multivariate analysis, the presence of loculation and hematoma laterality (unilateral vs bilateral) influenced hemiparesis. For unilateral hematomas, maximal hematoma thickness of 19.8 mm and midline shift of 6.4 mm were associated with a 50% probability of hemiparesis. For bilateral hematomas, 29.0 mm of maximal hematoma thickness and 6.8 mm of shift were associated with a 50% probability of hemiparesis.


Presence of loculations, unilateral hematomas, older patient age, hematoma maximal thickness, and midline shift were associated with a higher rate of hemiparesis in CSDH patients. Moreover, 19.8 mm of hematoma thickness and 6.4 mm of midline shift were associated with a 50% probability of hemiparesis in patients with unilateral hematomas.