Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 38 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rose Du x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Bradley A. Gross and Rose Du

Object

Owing to their rarity, demographics, natural history, and treatment, results for spinal juvenile (Type III) extradural-intradural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are frequently only provided in case report format.

Methods

A pooled analysis was performed utilizing the PubMed database through April 2013. Individualized patient data were extracted to elucidate demographics, hemorrhage risk, and treatment result information.

Results

Twenty-nine studies describing 51 patients were included. The mean age at presentation was 15.0 ± 10.5 years with a slight male predilection (63%, 1.7:1 sex ratio). Presentation modality included progressive deficits in 35%, hemorrhage in 31%, acute deficits not attributed to hemorrhage in 22%, and asymptomatic/incidental in 12% of patients. The annual hemorrhage rate was 2.1%; statistically significant risk factors for hemorrhage included presentation age (HR 0.39 [95% CI 0.18–0.87]) and associated aneurysms (HR 8.74 [95% CI 1.76–43.31]). Seventy-seven percent of patients underwent treatment; after a mean follow-up of 2.6 ± 3.2 years, 73% were improved, 10% were the same, and 17% were worse neurologically. Of 25 cases with described angiographic results, 8 lesions were obliterated (32%). Of these 25 patients, 8 had AVMs with associated aneurysms, and the aneurysm was obliterated in all 8 patients. Over the course of 57.9 patient-years of follow-up, including 55.3 patient-years for partially treated AVMs, no hemorrhages were described, reflecting a trend toward protection from hemorrhage after treatment (p = 0.12, likelihood ratio test).

Conclusions

Spinal juvenile (Type III) extradural-intradural AVMs commonly present symptomatically. Associated arterial aneurysms increase their hemorrhage risk, and protection from hemorrhage may be achieved from partial obliteration of these lesions, particularly if targeted toward associated aneurysms.

Full access

Bradley A. Gross and Rose Du

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper is to define an overall cavernous malformation (CM) hemorrhage rate and risk factors for hemorrhage.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic, pooled analysis via the PubMed database through October 2015 using the terms “cavernoma,” “cavernous malformation,” “natural history,” “bleeding,” and “hemorrhage.” English-language studies providing annual rates and/or risk factors for CM hemorrhage were included. Data extraction, performed independently by the authors, included demographic data, hemorrhage rates, and hemorrhage risk factors.

RESULTS

Across 12 natural history studies with 1610 patients, the mean age at presentation was 42.7 years old and 52% of patients (95% CI 49%–55%) were female. Presentation modality was seizure in 30% (95% CI 25%–35%), hemorrhage in 26% (95% CI 17%–37%), incidental in 17% (95% CI 9%–31%), and focal deficits only in 16% of cases (95% CI 11%–23%). CM location was lobar in 66% (95% CI 61%–70%), brainstem in 18% (95% CI 13%–24%), deep supratentorial in 8% (95% CI 6%–10%), and cerebellar in 8% (95% CI 5%–11%). Pooling 7 studies that did not assume CM presence since birth, the annual hemorrhage rate was 2.5% per patient-year over 5081.2 patient-years of follow-up (95% CI 1.3%–5.1%). Pooling hazard ratios across 5 studies that evaluated hemorrhage risk factors, prior CM hemorrhage was a significant risk factor for hemorrhage (HR 3.73, 95% CI 1.26–11.1; p = 0.02) while younger age, female sex, deep location, size, multiplicity, and associated developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) were not.

CONCLUSIONS

Although limited by the heterogeneity of incorporated reports and selection bias, this study found prior hemorrhage to be a significant risk factor for CM bleeding, while age, sex, CM location, size, multiplicity, and associated DVAs were not. Future natural history studies should compound annual hemorrhage rate with prospective seizure and nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates.

Restricted access

Bradley A. Gross and Rose Du

Object

The purpose of this report was to provide overall arteriovenous malformation (AVM) hemorrhage rates and, with enhanced statistical power, to elucidate significant risk factors for hemorrhage.

Methods

The authors performed a meta-analysis via the PubMed database through January 2012 using the terms “AVM,” “arteriovenous malformation,” “natural history,” “bleed,” and “hemorrhage.” Additional studies were identified through reference searches in each reviewed article. English language studies providing annual hemorrhage rates for AVMs were included. Data extraction, performed independently by the authors, included demographic data, hemorrhage rates, and hazard ratios for hemorrhage risk factors. The analysis was performed using a random effects model.

Results

Nine natural history studies with 3923 patients and 18,423 patient-years of follow-up were identified for analysis. The overall annual hemorrhage rate was 3.0% (95% CI 2.7%–3.4%). The rate of hemorrhage was 2.2% (95% CI 1.7%–2.7%) for unruptured AVMs and 4.5% (95% CI 3.7%–5.5%) for ruptured AVMs. Prior hemorrhage (HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.1–4.3), deep AVM location (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–3.4), exclusively deep venous drainage (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–3.8), and associated aneurysms (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6–2.0) were statistically significant risk factors for hemorrhage. Any deep venous drainage (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9–1.75) and female sex (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6–2.1) demonstrated a trend toward an increased risk of hemorrhage that was not statistically significant. Small AVM size and older patient age were not significant risk factors for hemorrhage.

Conclusions

Arteriovenous malformations with prior hemorrhage, deep location, exclusively deep venous drainage, and associated aneurysms have greater annual hemorrhage rates than their counterparts, influencing surgical decision making and the selection of radiosurgery for these lesions.

Restricted access

Wendy Huang, Bradley A. Gross and Rose Du

Object

Our understanding of spinal extradural arteriovenous fistulas (eAVFs) is relatively limited. In this study the authors aimed to provide the demographics, natural history, and treatment results of these rare lesions.

Methods

The authors performed a pooled analysis of data in the PubMed database through December 2012. Individualized patient data were extracted to elucidate demographic, clinical, and angioarchitectural features of spinal eAVFs as well as outcomes following different treatment strategies.

Results

Information on 101 patients was extracted from 63 eligible studies. The mean patient age was 45.9 years, and there was no significant overall sex predilection. Only 3% of the lesions were incidental, whereas 10% occurred in patients who had presented with hemorrhage. None of the 64 patients with at least 1 month of untreated follow-up sustained a hemorrhage over a total of 83.8 patient-years. Patients with lumbosacral eAVFs were significantly older (mean age 58.7 years, p < 0.0001), were significantly more often male (70% male, p = 0.02), had significantly worse presenting Aminoff-Logue motor and bladder scores (p = 0.0008 and < 0.0001, respectively), and had the greatest prevalence of lesions with intradural venous drainage (62% of cases, p < 0.0001). Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (30% of cases, p < 0.0001) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (9% of cases, p = 0.06) were associated with and exclusively found in patients with cervical eAVFs. The overall complete obliteration rate was 91%. After a mean follow-up of 1.7 years, the clinical condition was improved in 89% of patients, the same in 9%, and worse in 2%. Obliteration rates and outcome at follow-up did not significantly differ between surgical and endovascular treatment modalities.

Conclusions

Spinal eAVFs are rare lesions with a low risk of hemorrhage; they cause neurological morbidity as a result of mass effect and/or venous hypertension. Their treatment is associated with a high rate of complete obliteration and improvement in preoperative symptoms.

Restricted access

Giuseppe Lanzino

Free access

Bradley A. Gross, Pui Man Rosalind Lai and Rose Du

Object

The rates and risk factors for external ventricular drain (EVD) placement and long-term shunt dependence in patients with ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not been systematically studied. In this study the authors evaluated the rates of EVD placement and shunt dependence, and risk factors for them, in a cohort of patients with ruptured AVMs.

Methods

The records of 87 consecutive patients with ruptured AVMs were reviewed for patient demographics, hemorrhage pattern, AVM angioarchitectural features, and surgical treatment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for EVD placement, permanent shunt dependence, and long-term outcome (as measured by the modified Rankin Scale).

Results

Thirty-eight patients (44%) required EVD placement, and 16 (18%) required a permanent shunt. Statistically significant risk factors for EVD placement in the univariate analysis included initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p = 0.002), the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH; p < 0.001), AVM-associated aneurysms (p = 0.002), and early surgery (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed only AVM-associated aneurysms as statistically significant (p = 0.006). Risk factors for shunt placement included initial GCS score (p = 0.003), IVH (p = 0.01), deep supratentorial location (p = 0.034), and associated aneurysms (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed initial GCS score as a statistically significant risk factor (p = 0.041) as well as a strong trend for associated aneurysms (p = 0.06). Patient age, sex, associated subarachnoid hemorrhage, AVM grade, AVM size, and deep venous drainage were not associated with EVD placement or long-term shunt dependence.

Conclusions

Hydrocephalus from AVM rupture was associated with initial GCS score, IVH, and AVM-associated aneurysms. Arteriovenous malformations with associated aneurysms thus not only have a greater risk of hemorrhage but also a greater risk of hemorrhage-associated morbidity as a result of hydrocephalus.

Restricted access

Gabriel Zada, Rose Du and Edward R. Laws Jr.

Object

Endonasal approaches have become the gold standard intervention for many anterior and middle skull base tumors. The authors aimed to define some of the existing limitations of these approaches by reviewing their experience with complex sellar region tumors that were initially considered for both transsphenoidal and open skull base approaches and were thus deemed tumors at “the edge of the envelope.”

Methods

Between April 2008 and April 2010, 250 transsphenoidal operations were performed at Brigham and Women's Hospital. All cases were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with complex sellar region tumors that were initially considered for, or soon thereafter required, an open craniotomy as the definitive treatment. The anatomical tumor characteristics that posed limitations to performing safe and effective endonasal skull base operations were reviewed.

Results

Thirteen cases exemplifying some of the existing limitations to achieving optimal surgical outcomes via transsphenoidal-based approaches are presented. The following 8 factors are separately discussed that repeatedly limited the extent of resection, increased the risk of the operation, and contributed to perioperative complications: significant suprasellar extension, lateral extension, retrosellar extension, brain invasion with edema, firm tumor consistency, involvement or vasospasm of the arteries of the circle of Willis, and encasement of the optic apparatus or invasion of the optic foramina.

Conclusions

Although the ability to approach and resect complex tumors using endonasal skull base techniques has evolved dramatically in recent years, several inherent tumor characteristics mandate extensive preoperative consideration. In selected cases these characteristics may lend support to selecting an open craniotomy as the initial operation.

Restricted access

I-Duo Wang and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

Restricted access

Rose Du, Kurtis I. Auguste, Cynthia T. Chin, John W. Engstrom and Philip R. Weinstein

Object

Treatment of spinal and peripheral nerve lesions relies on localization of the pathology by the use of neurological examination, spinal MR imaging and electromyography (EMG)/nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a novel imaging technique recently developed for direct imaging of spinal and peripheral nerves. In this study, the authors analyzed the role of MRN in the evaluation of spinal and peripheral nerve lesions.

Methods

Imaging studies, medical records, and EMG/NCS results were analyzed retrospectively in a consecutive series of 191 patients who underwent MRN for spinal and peripheral nerve disorders at the University of California, San Francisco between March 1999 and February 2005. Ninety-one (47.6%) of these patients also underwent EMG/NCS studies.

Results

In those who underwent both MRN and EMG/NCS, MRN provided the same or additional diagnostic information 32 and 45% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance neurograms were obtained at a median of 12 months after the onset of symptoms. The utility of MRN correlated with the interval between the onset of symptoms to MRN. Twelve patients underwent repeated MRN for serial evaluation. The decrease in abnormal signal detected on subsequent MRN correlated with time from onset of symptoms and the time interval between MRN, but not with resolution of symptoms. Twenty-one patients underwent MRN postoperatively to assess persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms; of these 3 (14.3%) required a subsequent surgery.

Conclusions

Magnetic resonance neurography is a valuable adjunct to conventional MR imaging and EMG/NCS in the evaluation and localization of nerve root, brachial plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions. The authors found that MRN is indicated in patients: 1) in whom EMG and traditional MR imaging are inconclusive; 2) who present with brachial plexopathy who have previously received radiation therapy to the brachial plexus region; 3) who present with brachial plexopathy and have systemic tumors; and 4) in patients under consideration for surgery for peripheral nerve lesions or after trauma. Magnetic resonance neurography is limited by the size of the nerve trunk imaged and the timing of the study.

Restricted access

Rose Du, Tomoki Hashimoto, Tarik Tihan, William L. Young, Victor Perry and Michael T. Lawton

✓ Data on the growth, regression, and de novo formation of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) suggest that some of these lesions are not formed and developed only during embryogenesis. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have a genetic propensity to form AVMs. The authors report on the growth and regression of AVMs in a single patient with HHT. This 26-day-old boy with a family history of HHT1 and a mutation in ENG on chromosome 9 presented with a generalized seizure. Results of computed tomography revealed a left frontoparietal intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed multiple AVMs. Follow-up angiograms obtained 5 months later showed both growth and regression of the AVMs. A craniotomy was performed for complete resection of the left parietal AVM. Histopathological features of the surgical specimen were examined. Active angiogenesis, as indicated by increased endothelial proliferation, might be a part of the underlying pathophysiology of the growth and regression of AVMs.