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Bettina Pfausler, Heinrich Spiss, Ronny Beer, Andreas Kampfl, Klaus Engelhardt, Maria Schober, and Erich Schmutzhard

Object. Staphylococcal ventriculitis may be a complication in temporary external ventricular drains (EVDs). The limited penetration of vancomycin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is well known; the pharmacodynamics and efficacy of systemically compared with intraventricularly administered vancomycin is examined in this prospective study.

Methods. Ten patients in whom EVDs were implanted to treat intracranial hemorrhage and who were suffering from drain-associated ventriculitis were randomized into two treatment groups. Five of these patients (median age 47 years) were treated with 2 g/day vancomycin administered intravenously (four infusions/day, Group 1), and the other five (median age 49 years) received 10 mg vancomycin intraventricularly once daily (Group 2). Vancomycin levels were measured in serum and CSF six times a day. The maximum vancomycin level in CSF was 1.73 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Group 1 and 565.58 ± 168.71 µg/ml 1 hour after vancomycin application in Group 2 (mean ± standard deviation). Vancomycin levels above the recommended trough level of 5 µg/ml in CSF were never reached in Group 1, whereas in Group 2 they were below the trough level (3.74 ± 0.66 µg/ml) only at 21 hours after intraventricular vancomycin application. The vancomycin level in the serum was constant within therapeutic levels in Group 1, whereas in Group 2 in most instances vancomycin was almost below a measurable concentration. In both groups bacteriologically and laboratory-confirmed CSF clearance could be obtained.

Conclusions. Intraventricular vancomycin application is a safe and efficacious treatment modality in drain-associated ventriculitis, with much higher vancomycin levels being achieved in the ventricular CSF than by intravenous administration.

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Anna Lindner, Verena Rass, Bogdan-Andrei Ianosi, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Mario Kofler, Max Gaasch, Alberto Addis, Paul Rhomberg, Bettina Pfausler, Ronny Beer, Erich Schmutzhard, Claudius Thomé, and Raimund Helbok

OBJECTIVE

Recent guidelines recommend targeting a systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mm Hg in the early management of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The optimal SBP targets for ICH patients after hematoma evacuation (HE) remain unclear. Here, the authors aimed to define the optimal SBP range based on multimodal neuromonitoring data.

METHODS

Forty poor-grade ICH patients who had undergone HE and then monitoring of intracerebral pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2), and cerebral metabolism (via cerebral microdialysis [CMD]) were prospectively included. Episodes of brain tissue hypoxia (BTH) (1-hour averaged PbtO2 < 20 mm Hg) and metabolic distress (CMD–lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR] ≥ 40) were identified and linked to corresponding parameters of hemodynamic monitoring (SBP and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP]). Multivariable regression analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations to identify associations between SBP levels, PbtO2, and brain metabolism.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 60 (range 51–66) years and the median [IQR] initial ICH volume was 47 [29–60] ml. In multivariable models adjusted for Glasgow Coma Scale score, probe location, ICH volume, and age, lower SBP was independently associated with a higher risk of BTH (≤ 120 mm Hg: adjusted OR 2.9, p = 0.007; 120–130 mm Hg: adj OR 2.4, p = 0.002; 130–140 mm Hg: adj OR 1.6, p = 0.017) compared to a reference range of 140–150 mm Hg at the level of the foramen interventriculare Monroi, which corresponded to a CPP of 70–80 mm Hg and SBP levels between 150 and 160 mm Hg at the heart level. After exclusion of episodes with mitochondrial dysfunction, SBP targets < 140 mm Hg were associated with higher odds of cerebral metabolic distress (≤ 130 mm Hg: OR 2.5, p = 0.041; 130–140 mm Hg: OR 2.3, p = 0.033). Patients with a modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 5 at neurological ICU discharge more often exhibited BTH than patients with better outcomes (51% vs 10%, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that lower SPB and CPP levels are associated with a higher risk for BTH. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether a higher SPB target may prevent BTH and improve outcomes.

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Lennart Riemann, Daphne C. Voormolen, Katrin Rauen, Klaus Zweckberger, Andreas Unterberg, Alexander Younsi, and the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Investigators and Participants

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of postconcussive symptoms and their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric and adolescent patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who received head CT imaging during initial assessment.

METHODS

Patients aged between 5 and 21 years with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13–15) and available Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) at 6 months of follow-up in the multicenter, prospectively collected CENTER-TBI (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI) study were included. The prevalence of postconcussive symptoms was assessed, and the occurrence of postconcussive syndrome (PSC) based on the ICD-10 criteria, was analyzed. HRQOL was compared in patients with and without PCS using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire.

RESULTS

A total of 196 adolescent or pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging were included. High-energy trauma was prevalent in more than half of cases (54%), abnormalities on head CT scans were detected in 41%, and admission to the regular ward or intensive care unit was necessary in 78%. Six months postinjury, 36% of included patients had experienced at least one moderate or severe symptom on the RPQ. PCS was present in 13% of adolescents and children when considering symptoms of at least moderate severity, and those patients had significantly lower QOLIBRI total scores, indicating lower HRQOL, compared with young patients without PCS (57 vs 83 points, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Adolescent and pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging show signs of increased trauma severity. Postconcussive symptoms are present in up to one-third of those patients, and PCS can be diagnosed in 13% 6 months after injury. Moreover, PCS is significantly associated with decreased HRQOL.