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Zihao Chen, Bin Liu, Jianwen Dong, Feng Feng, Ruiqiang Chen, Peigen Xie, Liangming Zhang, and Limin Rong

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACF) with laminoplasty for the treatment of patients diagnosed with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).

METHODS

The authors searched electronic databases for relevant studies that compared the use of ACF with laminoplasty for the treatment of patients with OPLL. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted, and statistical software was used for data analysis. The random effects model was used if there was heterogeneity between studies; otherwise, the fixed effects model was used.

RESULTS

A total of 10 nonrandomized controlled studies involving 819 patients were included. Postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score (p = 0.02, 95% CI 0.30–2.81) was better in the ACF group than in the laminoplasty group. The recovery rate was superior in the ACF group for patients with an occupying ratio of OPLL of ≥ 60% (p < 0.00001, 95% CI 21.27–34.44) and for patients with kyphotic alignment (p < 0.00001, 95% CI 16.49–27.17). Data analysis also showed that the ACF group was associated with a higher incidence of complications (p = 0.02, 95% CI 1.08–2.59) and reoperations (p = 0.002, 95% CI 1.83–14.79), longer operation time (p = 0.01, 95% CI 17.72 –160.75), and more blood loss (p = 0.0004, 95% CI 42.22–148.45).

CONCLUSIONS

For patients with an occupying ratio ≥ 60% or with kyphotic cervical alignment, ACF appears to be the preferable treatment method. Nevertheless, laminoplasty seems to be effective and safe enough for patients with an occupying ratio < 60% or with adequate cervical lordosis. However, it must be emphasized that a surgical strategy should be made based on the individual patient. Further randomized controlled trials comparing the use of ACF with laminoplasty for the treatment of OPLL should be performed to make a more convincing conclusion.

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Sanjeev Ariyandath Sreenivasan, Manoj Phalak, Sachin Anil Borkar, and Shashank Sharad Kale

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Jinping Liu, Pingguo Duan, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Rong Xie, Bo Li, Yinhui Dong, Sigurd Berven, and Dean Chou

OBJECTIVE

Conflicting reports exist about whether transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) induces lordosis or kyphosis, ranging from decreasing lordosis by 3.71° to increasing it by 18.8°. In this study, the authors’ aim was to identify factors that result in kyphosis or lordosis after TLIF.

METHODS

A single-center, retrospective study of open TLIF without osteotomy for spondylolisthesis with a minimum 2-year follow-up was undertaken. Preoperative and postoperative clinical and radiographic parameters and cage specifics were collected. TLIFs were considered to be “lordosing” if postoperative induction of lordosis was > 0° and “kyphosing” if postoperative induction of lordosis was ≤ 0°.

RESULTS

A total of 137 patients with an average follow-up of 52.5 months (range 24–130 months) were included. The overall postoperative disc angle (DA) and segmental lordosis (SL) increased by 1.96° and 1.88° (p = 0.003 and p = 0.038), respectively, whereas overall lumbar lordosis remained unchanged (p = 0.133). Seventy-nine patients had lordosing TLIFs with a mean SL increase of 5.72° ± 3.97°, and 58 patients had kyphosing TLIFs with a mean decrease of 3.02° ± 2.98°. Multivariate analysis showed that a lower preoperative DA, lower preoperative SL, and anterior cage placement were correlated with the greatest increase in postoperative SL (p = 0.040, p < 0.001, and p = 0.035, respectively). There was no difference in demographics, cage type or height, or spinopelvic parameters between the groups (p > 0.05). Linear regression showed that the preoperative DA and SL correlated with SL after TLIF (R2 = 0.198, p < 0.001; and R2 = 0.2931, p < 0.001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Whether a TLIF induces kyphosis or lordosis depends on the preoperative DA, preoperative SL, and cage position. Less-lordotic segments became more lordotic postoperatively, and highly lordotic segments may lose lordosis after TLIF. Cages placed more anteriorly were associated with more lordosis.

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Jianwen Dong, Limin Rong, Feng Feng, Bin Liu, Yichun Xu, Qiyou Wang, Ruiqiang Chen, and Peigen Xie

Object

Treatment of patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar instability using unilateral pedicle screw fixation can achieve stability and fusion rates similar to those of bilateral pedicle screw fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of using unilateral pedicle screw fixation through a tubular retractor via the Wiltse approach to treat single-segment degenerative lumbar instability.

Methods

Thirty-nine consecutive patients with single-segment, low-grade, degenerative lumbar instability were randomly assigned to treatment with either unilateral (n = 20) or bilateral (n = 19) pedicle screw fixation. In the unilateral group, patients underwent unilateral posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and ipsilateral pedicle screw fixation through a tubular retractor via the Wiltse approach. In the bilateral group, patients underwent modified bilateral PLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation via the posterior midline approach. During follow-up, patients were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS), the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, and the Oswestry Disability Index.

Results

The unilateral group had a shorter operative duration (p < 0.05) and less blood loss (p < 0.001). All patients completed more than 2 years of follow-up (mean 36 months). In general, the time trends in improvement on the VAS and JOA differed slightly between the groups through 2 years, but no significant difference in back pain VAS score or leg pain VAS score was found between these 2 groups at the 2-year follow-up. Complete bone fusion was shown on CT in all patients at the 2-year follow-up.

Conclusions

Unilateral pedicle screw fixation through a tubular retractor via the Wiltse approach appears to be as safe and effective as bilateral pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of single-segment degenerative lumbar instability.

Free access

Zihao Chen, Liangming Zhang, Jianwen Dong, Peigen Xie, Bin Liu, Qiyou Wang, Ruiqiang Chen, Feng Feng, Bu Yang, Tao Shu, Shangfu Li, Yang Yang, Lei He, Mao Pang, and Limin Rong

OBJECTIVE

A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to clarify whether percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) results in better clinical outcomes and less surgical trauma than microendoscopic discectomy (MED).

METHODS

In this single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial, patients were included if they had persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy with corresponding imaging-confirmed lumbar disc herniation. Patients were randomly allocated to the PTED or the MED group by computer-generated randomization codes. The primary outcome was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score 1 year after surgery. Secondary outcomes included scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain and physical function scales, EuroQol Group’s EQ-5D , and the visual analog scales for back pain and leg pain. Data including duration of operation, in-bed time, length of hospital stay, surgical cost and total hospital cost, complications, and reoperations were recorded.

RESULTS

A total of 153 participants were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (PTED vs MED), and 89.5% (137 patients) completed 1 year of follow-up. Primary and secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the treatment groups at each prespecified follow-up point (p > 0.05). For PTED, there was less postoperative improvement in ODI score in the median herniation subgroup at 1 week (p = 0.027), 3 months (p = 0.013), 6 months (p = 0.027), and 1 year (p = 0.028) compared with the paramedian subgroup. For MED, there was significantly less improvement in ODI score at 3 months (p = 0.008), 6 months (p = 0.028), and 1 year (p = 0.028) in the far-lateral herniation subgroup compared with the paramedian subgroup. The total complication rate over the course of 1 year was 13.75% in the PTED group and 16.44% in the MED group (p = 0.642). Five patients (6.25%) in the PTED group and 3 patients (4.11%) in the MED group suffered from residue/recurrence of herniation, for which reoperation was required.

CONCLUSIONS

Over the 1-year follow-up period, PTED did not show superior clinical outcomes and did not seem to be a safer procedure for patients with lumbar disc herniation compared with MED. PTED had inferior results for median disc herniation, whereas MED did not seem to be the best treatment option for far-lateral disc herniation.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01997086 (clinicaltrials.gov).

Free access

Peigen Xie, Feng Feng, Junyan Cao, Zihao Chen, Bingjun He, Zhuang Kang, Lei He, Wenbin Wu, Lei Tan, Kai Li, Rongqin Zheng, and Limin Rong

OBJECTIVE

Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance and is associated with a large radiation dose. Ultrasonography (US)–MR image fusion navigation combines the advantages of US and MRI and requires significantly less radiation than fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of US-MR image fusion navigation for PTED.

METHODS

From January to September 2018, patients with L4–5 lumbar disc herniation requiring PTED were randomized to have the procedure conducted with US-MR image fusion navigation or fluoroscopy. The number of fluoroscopies, radiation dose, duration of imaging guidance, intraoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, intraoperative complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

There were 10 patients in the US-MR navigation group and 10 in the fluoroscopy group, and there were no significant differences in age, sex ratio, or BMI between the 2 groups (all p > 0.05). Intraoperatively, the total radiation dose, number of fluoroscopies performed, duration of image guidance, and VAS low-back and leg pain scores were all significantly lower in the US-MRI navigation group than in the fluoroscopy group (all p < 0.05). There were no intraoperative complications in either group. Postoperative improvements in Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Oswestry Disability Index, and VAS pain scale scores were similar between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

US-MR image fusion navigation is a promising technology for performing PTED and requires significantly less radiation than fluoroscopy.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03403244 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

Restricted access

Xing Wu, Jin Hu, Liangfu Zhou, Ying Mao, Bojie Yang, Liang Gao, Rong Xie, Feng Xu, Dong Zhang, Jun Liu, and Jianhong Zhu

Object

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to migrate toward tumors, but their distribution pattern in gliomas has not been completely portrayed. The primary purpose of the study was to assay the tropism capacity of MSCs to gliomas, to delineate the pattern of MSC distribution in gliomas after systemic injection, and to track the migration and incorporation of magnetically labeled MSCs using 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

Methods

The MSCs from Fischer 344 rats were colabeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The tropism capacity of MSCs was quantitatively assayed in vitro using the Transwell system. To track the migration of MSCs in vivo, MR imaging was performed both 7 and 14 days after systemic administration of labeled MSCs. After MR imaging, the distribution patterns of MSCs in rats with gliomas were examined using Prussian blue and fluorescence staining.

Results

The in vitro study showed that MSCs possessed significantly greater migratory capacity than fibroblast cells (p < 0.001) and that lysis of F98 glioma cells and cultured F98 cells showed a greater capacity to induce migration of cells than other stimuli (p < 0.05). Seven days after MSC transplantation, the SPIO–EGFP colabeled cells were distributed throughout the tumor, where a well-defined dark hypointense region was represented on gradient echo sequences. After 14 days, most of the colabeled MSCs were found at the border between the tumor and normal parenchyma, which was represented on gradient echo sequences as diluted amorphous dark areas at the edge of the tumors.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated that systemically transplanted MSCs migrate toward gliomas with high specificity in a temporal–spatial pattern, which can be tracked using MR imaging.