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Acute Subdural Hemorrhage of Posterior Fossa

Report of a Case with Review of the Literature

M. N. Estridge and Roger A. Smith

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Anterior Cervical Fusion

Solution of a Particular Problem

M. N. Estridge and Roger A. Smith

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M. N. Estridge and Roger A. Smith

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Pituitary Cyst

Lined with a Single Layer of Columnar Epithelium

Roger A. Smith III and Paul C. Bucy

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Ross Bullock, Roger Smith, Jean Favier, Michael du Trevou and Gordon Blake

✓ White matter specific gravity was measured using the microgravimetric method in 20 comatose patients with diffuse head injury who were undergoing intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and in 19 patients with focal injuries who were undergoing evacuation of contusions or intracerebral hematomas. Computerized tomography (CT) density readings were obtained for each site of white matter sampling by locating the sampling site on the preoperative CT scan. A significant correlation was found between the specific gravity values and the CT density numbers (r = 0.775; p < 0.001). Patients with focal injuries demonstrated reduced perifocal specific gravity, suggesting brain edema. The mean specific gravity in patients with diffuse injury was within the normal range. In 10 of 12 patients in whom the specific gravity was above the normal range, the CT density was also above the normal range. These data suggest that cerebral vascular engorgement is the cause of the high specific gravity. Six (60%) of this small subgroup of 10 patients also demonstrated a high ICP.

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Peter D. Angevine and Paul C. McCormick

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Justin C. Clark and Curtis A. Dickman

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Juan Pablo Cruz, Arjun Sahgal, Cari Whyne, Michael G. Fehlings and Roger Smith

Balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) has been proven to be safe and effective in the management of pathological vertebral compression fracture (VCF) due to metastatic spinal disease. The most common serious complications related to BKP include cement extravasation and new fractures at adjacent levels. Although the potential for “tumor extravasation” has been discussed as a potential iatrogenic complication, it has yet to be confirmed. The authors report on 2 cases of tumor extravasation following BKP, which they base on an observed unusual rapid tumor spread pattern into the adjacent tissues. They postulate that by increasing the vertebral body internal pressure and disrupting the tissues during balloon inflation and cement application, a soft-tissue tumor can be forced beyond the vertebral bony boundaries through pathological cortical defects. This phenomenon can manifest radiologically as subligamentous spread and/or extension into venous sinusoids, resulting in epidural venous plexus involvement, with subsequent tumor migration into the adjacent vertebral segments. Accordingly, the authors advise caution in using BKP when significant epidural tumor is present. The complication they encountered has caused them to modify their preference such that they now first use radiosurgery and subsequently BKP to ensure the target is appropriately treated, and they are currently developing possible modifications of procedural technique to reduce the risk.