Rodrigo Carrasco and José M. Pascual
Conquest of third ventricle craniopharyngiomas
José M. Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Marta Navas and Rodrigo Carrasco
José María Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Rodrigo Carrasco and Laura Barrios
Accurate diagnosis of the topographical relationships of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) involving the third ventricle and/or hypothalamus remains a challenging issue that critically influences the prediction of risks associated with their radical surgical removal. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of MRI to define the precise topographical relationships between intraventricular CPs, the third ventricle, and the hypothalamus.
An extensive retrospective review of well-described CPs reported in the MRI era between 1990 and 2009 yielded 875 lesions largely or wholly involving the third ventricle. Craniopharyngiomas with midsagittal and coronal preoperative and postoperative MRI studies, in addition to detailed descriptions of clinical and surgical findings, were selected from this database (n = 130). The position of the CP and the morphological distortions caused by the tumor on the sella turcica, suprasellar cistern, optic chiasm, pituitary stalk, and third ventricle floor, including the infundibulum, tuber cinereum, and mammillary bodies (MBs), were analyzed on both preoperative and postoperative MRI studies. These changes were correlated with the definitive CP topography and type of third ventricle involvement by the lesion, as confirmed surgically.
The mammillary body angle (MBA) is the angle formed by the intersection of a plane tangential to the base of the MBs and a plane parallel to the floor of the fourth ventricle in midsagittal MRI studies. Measurement of the MBA represented a reliable neuroradiological sign that could be used to discriminate the type of intraventricular involvement by the CP in 83% of cases in this series (n = 109). An acute MBA (< 60°) was indicative of a primary tuberal-intraventricular topography, whereas an obtuse MBA (> 90°) denoted a primary suprasellar CP position, causing either an invagination of the third ventricle (pseudointraventricular lesion) or its invasion (secondarily intraventricular lesion; p < 0.01). A multivariate model including a combination of 5 variables (the MBA, position of the hypothalamus, presence of hydrocephalus, psychiatric symptoms, and patient age) allowed an accurate definition of the CP topography preoperatively in 74%–90% of lesions, depending on the specific type of relationship between the tumor and third ventricle.
The type of mammillary body displacement caused by CPs represents a valuable clue for ascertaining the topographical relationships between these lesions and the third ventricle on preoperative MRI studies. The MBA provides a useful sign to preoperatively differentiate a primary intraventricular CP originating at the infundibulotuberal area from a primary suprasellar CP, which either invaginated or secondarily invaded the third ventricle.
Ruth Prieto, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Laura Barrios and José María Pascual
Rodrigo Carrasco-Moro, Ines Castro-Dufourny, Juan S. Martínez-San Millán, Lidia Cabañes-Martínez and José M. Pascual
Establishing the neurological localization doctrine for the contralateral hemispheric control of motor functions in the second half of the 19th century, researchers faced the challenge of recognizing false localizing signs, in particular paradoxical or ipsilateral hemiparesis (IH). Despite tremendous progress in current methods of neuroradiological and electrophysiological exploration, a complete understanding of this phenomenon has yet to be attained.
The authors researched the well-described cases of hemiparesis/hemiplegia ipsilateral to an intracranial lesion published in the scientific literature in the pre-MRI era (before 1980). A comprehensive review of the physiopathological mechanisms proposed for paradoxical hemiparesis throughout this period, as well as the pathological evidence substantiating them, is provided.
A collection of 75 patients with hemiparesis/hemiplegia ipsilateral to the primary intracranial lesion reported between 1858 and 1979 were eligible for analysis. Most cases occurred in adults with supratentorial, slowly developing, extraparenchymatous mass lesions, such as neoplasms (38%) or chronic subdural hematomas (36%). Physiopathological theories proposed by the neurologists who investigated IH can be grouped into 4 major concepts: 1) lack of anatomical decussation of the corticospinal tract; 2) impaired functional activation of the contralateral hemisphere by the lesioned dominant hemisphere through the callosal connections; 3) Kernohan’s notch phenomenon, or mechanical injury of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the free edge of the tentorium; and 4) cerebrovascular dysfunction involving the contralateral hemisphere owing to kinking and mechanical flattening of the carotid artery contralateral to the primary intracranial lesion.
IH represents a still underdiagnosed paradoxical neurological phenomenon. With the aid of modern neuroradiological and neurophysiological methods, Kernohan’s peduncle notch mechanism has been confirmed to cause IH in many of the cases reported in recent decades. Nevertheless, alternative functional and/or vascular mechanisms must be investigated further for unexplained IH cases, in particular for transitory IH without evidence of peduncle injury. The historical theories reviewed in this paper represent a conceptual framework that may be helpful for this purpose.
José María Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Sewan Strauss and Laura Barrios
The development of surgical procedures for the removal of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) was greatly influenced by the enormous topographical and morphological heterogeneity displayed by these lesions. In this study the authors reviewed the intracranial approaches designed to treat CPs during the early historical period (1891–1938) with the aim of finding the CP topographical and pathological features that influence patient outcomes.
The authors conducted a systematic retrospective review of well-described cases of surgically treated CPs in publications from the period 1891–1938. Valuable information regarding the diagnosis of the lesion, type of craniotomy performed, CP topography, and outcome was selected from 418 reports included in medical publications from this period. The type of surgical procedure used, degree of tumor removal, CP position and histological variety, and clinical evidence of postoperative hypothalamic injury were the variables analyzed with the aim of defining their influence on the final patient outcome.
A collection of 160 cases was eligible for analysis. Craniopharyngioma topography was significantly related to the existence of postoperative hypothalamic damage and the degree of tumor removal achieved (p < 0.001). The infundibulo-tuberal, or not strictly intraventricular, topography was associated with the highest rate of hypothalamic injury (84%) and impossibility of tumor removal (51%). This topography also showed the worst prognosis (p = 0.001). Additional variables correlated with patient outcome were the presence of hypothalamic damage, type of surgical approach used, and degree of tumor removal. Patients having a poor outcome, suffering from permanent coma, or dying after surgery presented with symptoms of hypothalamic injury in 40% of cases (p < 0.001). The surgical approach associated with the best outcome was the transsphenoidal (58%), followed by the subfrontal (45%) and the transcallosal (45%). Subtotal resection of the lesion yielded the best postoperative results, with only 17% of patients dying or suffering from a poor outcome, in contrast to the 39% reported for gross-total removal of the lesion (p = 0.001).
Two major variables influenced the results of early surgical experience with CPs for the period from 1891 to 1938: 1) the inaccuracy in defining CP topography with the diagnostic methods available at that time; and 2) the ignorance about the risks associated with the dissection of lesions showing tenacious adherence to the hypothalamus. The degree of functional and morphological disturbance of the hypothalamus caused by a CP remains a fundamental variable helping the surgeon to predict the risks associated with the radical excision of the tumor and patient outcome.
Ruth Prieto, José María Pascual, Maria Rosdolsky, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Sewan Strauss and Laura Barrios
Craniopharyngioma (CP) adherence strongly influences the potential for achieving a radical and safe surgical treatment. However, this factor remains poorly addressed in the scientific literature. This study provides a rational, comprehensive description of CP adherence that can be used for the prediction of surgical risks associated with the removal of these challenging lesions.
This study retrospectively analyzes the evidence provided in pathological, neuroradiological, and surgical CP reports concerning 3 components of the CP attachment: 1) the intracranial structures attached to the tumor; 2) the morphology of the adhesion; and 3) the adhesion strength. From a total of 1781 CP reports published between 1857 and 2016, a collection of 500 CPs providing the best information about the type of CP attachment were investigated. This cohort includes autopsy studies (n = 254); surgical studies with a detailed description or pictorial evidence of CP adherence (n = 298); and surgical CP videos (n = 61) showing the technical steps for releasing the attachment. A predictive model of CP adherence in hierarchical severity levels correlated with surgical outcomes was generated by multivariate analysis.
The anatomical location of the CP attachment occurred predominantly at the third ventricle floor (TVF) (54%, n = 268), third ventricle walls (23%, n = 114), and pituitary stalk (19%, n = 94). The optic chiasm was involved in 56% (n = 281). Six morphological patterns of CP attachment were identified: 1) fibrovascular pedicle (5.4%); 2) sessile or patch-like (21%); 3) cap-like (over the CP top, 14%); 4) bowl-like (around the CP bottom, 13.5%); 5) ring-like (encircling central band, 19%); and 6) circumferential (enveloping the entire CP, 27%). Adhesion strength was classified in 4 grades: 1) loose (easily dissectible, 8%); 2) tight (requires sharp dissection, 32%); 3) fusion (no clear cleavage plane, 40%); and 4) replacement (loss of brain tissue integrity, 20%). The types of CP attachment associated with the worst surgical outcomes are the ring-like, bowl-like, and circumferential ones with fusion to the TVF or replacement of this structure (p < 0.001). The CP topography is the variable that best predicts the type of CP attachment (p < 0.001). Ring-like and circumferential attachments were observed for CPs invading the TVF (secondary intraventricular CPs) and CPs developing within the TVF itself (infundibulo-tuberal CPs). Brain invasion and peritumoral gliosis occurred predominantly in the ring-like and circumferential adherence patterns (p < 0.001). A multivariate model including the variables CP topography, tumor consistency, and the presence of hydrocephalus, infundibulo-tuberal syndrome, and/or hypothalamic dysfunction accurately predicts the severity of CP attachment in 87% of cases.
A comprehensive descriptive model of CP adherence in 5 hierarchical levels of increased severity—mild, moderate, serious, severe, and critical—was generated. This model, based on the location, morphology, and strength of the attachment can be used to anticipate the surgical risk of hypothalamic injury and to plan the degree of removal accordingly.