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Rodolfo Maduri, Viviana Aureli, Vincent Dunet, Roy Thomas Daniel, and Mahmoud Messerer

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John Michael Duff, Patrick Omoumi, Lukas Bobinski, Amani Belouaer, Sonia Plaza Wuthrich, Fabio Zanchi, and Rodolfo Maduri

OBJECTIVE

The authors previously described the image merge tailored access resection (IMTAR) technique for resection of spinal intradural lesions (SIDLs). The authors reported their updated experience with the IMTAR technique and compared surgical results between patients who underwent operations with 2D or 3D fluoroscopic guidance.

METHODS

The authors reviewed 60 patients who underwent SIDL resection with transtubular techniques over a 14-year period. The earlier patients in the series underwent operations with 2D fluoroscopic image guidance. The latter patients underwent operations with the IMTAR technique based on 3D image guidance. The results of both techniques were analyzed.

RESULTS

Sixty patients were included: 27 females (45%) and 33 males (55%). The median (range) age was 50.5 (19–92) years. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 52 patients (86.7%). Subtotal resection was accomplished in 5 patients (8.3%). Neurological complications occurred in 3 patients (5%), and tumor recurrence occurred in 1 patient (1.7%). The non-IMTAR and IMTAR cohorts showed similar postoperative Nurick scale scores and rates of neurological complications and GTR. The median (interquartile range) bone resection surface area at the index level was 89.5 (51–147) mm2 in the non-IMTAR cohort and 35.5 (11–71) mm2 in the IMTAR cohort, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0112).

CONCLUSIONS

Surgery for SIDLs may be challenging, and meticulous surgical planning is crucial to optimize tumor access, maximize resection, and minimize risk of complications. Image-guided transtubular resection is an additional surgical technique for SIDLs and facilitates microsurgical tumor removal of ventrally located lesions with a posterolateral approach, without requiring potentially destabilizing bone resection.

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Daniele Starnoni, Giulia Cossu, Rodolfo Maduri, Constantin Tuleasca, Mercy George, Raphael Maire, Mahmoud Messerer, Marc Levivier, Etienne Pralong, and Roy T. Daniel

OBJECTIVE

Cochlear nerve preservation during surgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS) may be challenging. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and cochlear compound nerve action potentials have clearly shown their limitations in surgeries for large VSs. In this paper, the authors report their preliminary results after direct electrical intraoperative cochlear nerve stimulation and recording of the postauricular muscle response (PAMR) during resection of large VSs.

METHODS

The details for the electrode setup, stimulation, and recording parameters are provided. Data of patients for whom PAMR was recorded during surgery were prospectively collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

PAMRs were recorded in all patients at the ipsilateral vertex-earlobe scalp electrode, and in 90% of the patients they were also observed in the contralateral electrode. The optimal stimulation intensity was found to be 1 mA at 1 Hz, with a good cochlear response and an absent response from other nerves. At that intensity, the ipsilateral cochlear response had an initial peak at a mean (± SEM) latency of 11.6 ± 1.5 msec with an average amplitude of 14.4 ± 5.4 µV. One patient experienced a significant improvement in his audition, while that of the other patients remained stable.

CONCLUSIONS

PAMR monitoring may be useful in mapping the position and trajectory of the cochlear nerve to enable hearing preservation during surgery.

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Nicolai Maldaner, Valentin K. Steinsiepe, Johannes Goldberg, Christian Fung, David Bervini, Adrien May, Philippe Bijlenga, Karl Schaller, Michel Roethlisberger, Daniel W. Zumofen, Donato D’Alonzo, Serge Marbacher, Javier Fandino, Rodolfo Maduri, Roy Thomas Daniel, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Alessio Chiappini, Thomas Robert, Bawarjan Schatlo, Martin A. Seule, Astrid Weyerbrock, Luca Regli, Martin Nikolaus Stienen, and for the Swiss SOS Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine patterns of care and outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in a contemporary national cohort.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of prospective data from a nationwide multicenter registry of all aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) cases admitted to a tertiary care neurosurgical department in Switzerland in the years 2009–2015 (Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage [Swiss SOS]). Patterns of care and outcomes at discharge and the 1-year follow-up in MCA aneurysm (MCAA) patients were analyzed and compared with those in a control group of patients with IAs in locations other than the MCA (non-MCAA patients). Independent predictors of a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 3) were identified, and their effect size was determined.

RESULTS

Among 1866 consecutive aSAH patients, 413 (22.1%) harbored an MCAA. These MCAA patients presented with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades (p = 0.007), showed a higher rate of concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 41.9% vs 16.7%, p < 0.001), and experienced delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) more frequently (38.9% vs 29.4%, p = 0.001) than non-MCAA patients. After adjustment for confounders, patients with MCAA were as likely as non-MCAA patients to experience DCI (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.74–1.45, p = 0.830). Surgical treatment was the dominant treatment modality in MCAA patients and at a significantly higher rate than in non-MCAA patients (81.7% vs 36.7%, p < 0.001). An MCAA location was a strong independent predictor of surgical treatment (aOR 8.49, 95% CI 5.89–12.25, p < 0.001), despite statistical adjustment for variables traditionally associated with surgical treatment, such as (space-occupying) ICH (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23–2.45, p = 0.002). Even though MCAA patients were less likely to die during the acute hospitalization (aOR 0.52, 0.30–0.91, p = 0.022), their rate of a favorable outcome was lower at discharge than that in non-MCAA patients (55.7% vs 63.7%, p = 0.003). At the 1-year follow-up, 68.5% and 69.6% of MCAA and non-MCAA patients, respectively, had a favorable outcome (p = 0.676).

CONCLUSIONS

Microsurgical occlusion remains the predominant treatment choice for about 80% of ruptured MCAAs in a European industrialized country. Although patients with MCAAs presented with worse admission grades and greater rates of concomitant ICH, in-hospital mortality was lower and long-term disability was comparable to those in patients with non-MCAA.

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Nicolai Maldaner, Valentin K. Steinsiepe, Johannes Goldberg, Christian Fung, David Bervini, Adrien May, Philippe Bijlenga, Karl Schaller, Michel Roethlisberger, Daniel W. Zumofen, Donato D’Alonzo, Serge Marbacher, Javier Fandino, Rodolfo Maduri, Roy Thomas Daniel, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Alessio Chiappini, Thomas Robert, Bawarjan Schatlo, Martin A. Seule, Astrid Weyerbrock, Luca Regli, Martin Nikolaus Stienen, and for the Swiss SOS Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine patterns of care and outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in a contemporary national cohort.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of prospective data from a nationwide multicenter registry of all aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) cases admitted to a tertiary care neurosurgical department in Switzerland in the years 2009–2015 (Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage [Swiss SOS]). Patterns of care and outcomes at discharge and the 1-year follow-up in MCA aneurysm (MCAA) patients were analyzed and compared with those in a control group of patients with IAs in locations other than the MCA (non-MCAA patients). Independent predictors of a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 3) were identified, and their effect size was determined.

RESULTS

Among 1866 consecutive aSAH patients, 413 (22.1%) harbored an MCAA. These MCAA patients presented with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades (p = 0.007), showed a higher rate of concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 41.9% vs 16.7%, p < 0.001), and experienced delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) more frequently (38.9% vs 29.4%, p = 0.001) than non-MCAA patients. After adjustment for confounders, patients with MCAA were as likely as non-MCAA patients to experience DCI (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.74–1.45, p = 0.830). Surgical treatment was the dominant treatment modality in MCAA patients and at a significantly higher rate than in non-MCAA patients (81.7% vs 36.7%, p < 0.001). An MCAA location was a strong independent predictor of surgical treatment (aOR 8.49, 95% CI 5.89–12.25, p < 0.001), despite statistical adjustment for variables traditionally associated with surgical treatment, such as (space-occupying) ICH (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23–2.45, p = 0.002). Even though MCAA patients were less likely to die during the acute hospitalization (aOR 0.52, 0.30–0.91, p = 0.022), their rate of a favorable outcome was lower at discharge than that in non-MCAA patients (55.7% vs 63.7%, p = 0.003). At the 1-year follow-up, 68.5% and 69.6% of MCAA and non-MCAA patients, respectively, had a favorable outcome (p = 0.676).

CONCLUSIONS

Microsurgical occlusion remains the predominant treatment choice for about 80% of ruptured MCAAs in a European industrialized country. Although patients with MCAAs presented with worse admission grades and greater rates of concomitant ICH, in-hospital mortality was lower and long-term disability was comparable to those in patients with non-MCAA.

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Martin N. Stienen, Menno R. Germans, Olivia Zindel-Geisseler, Noemi Dannecker, Yannick Rothacher, Ladina Schlosser, Julia Velz, Martina Sebök, Noemi Eggenberger, Adrien May, Julien Haemmerli, Philippe Bijlenga, Karl Schaller, Ursula Guerra-Lopez, Rodolfo Maduri, Valérie Beaud, Khalid Al-Taha, Roy Thomas Daniel, Alessio Chiappini, Stefania Rossi, Thomas Robert, Sara Bonasia, Johannes Goldberg, Christian Fung, David Bervini, Marie Elise Maradan-Gachet, Klemens Gutbrod, Nicolai Maldaner, Marian C. Neidert, Severin Früh, Marc Schwind, Oliver Bozinov, Peter Brugger, Emanuela Keller, Angelina Marr, Sébastien Roux, Luca Regli, and

OBJECTIVE

While prior retrospective studies have suggested that delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a predictor of neuropsychological deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), all studies to date have shown a high risk of bias. This study was designed to determine the impact of DCI on the longitudinal neuropsychological outcome after aSAH, and importantly, it includes a baseline examination after aSAH but before DCI onset to reduce the risk of bias.

METHODS

In a prospective, multicenter study (8 Swiss centers), 112 consecutive alert patients underwent serial neuropsychological assessments (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) before and after the DCI period (first assessment, < 72 hours after aSAH; second, 14 days after aSAH; third, 3 months after aSAH). The authors compared standardized MoCA scores and determined the likelihood for a clinically meaningful decline of ≥ 2 points from baseline in patients with DCI versus those without.

RESULTS

The authors screened 519 patients, enrolled 128, and obtained complete data in 112 (87.5%; mean [± SD] age 53.9 ± 13.9 years; 66.1% female; 73% World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies [WFNS] grade I, 17% WFNS grade II, 10% WFNS grades III–V), of whom 30 (26.8%) developed DCI. MoCA z-scores were worse in the DCI group at baseline (−2.6 vs −1.4, p = 0.013) and 14 days (−3.4 vs −0.9, p < 0.001), and 3 months (−0.8 vs 0.0, p = 0.037) after aSAH. Patients with DCI were more likely to experience a decline of ≥ 2 points in MoCA score at 14 days after aSAH (adjusted OR [aOR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.07–8.54; p = 0.037), but the likelihood was similar to that in patients without DCI at 3 months after aSAH (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 0.28–8.89; p = 0.606).

CONCLUSIONS

Aneurysmal SAH patients experiencing DCI have worse neuropsychological function before and until 3 months after the DCI period. DCI itself is responsible for a temporary and clinically meaningful decline in neuropsychological function, but its effect on the MoCA score could not be measured at the time of the 3-month follow-up in patients with low-grade aSAH with little or no impairment of consciousness. Whether these findings can be extrapolated to patients with high-grade aSAH remains unclear.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03032471 (ClinicalTrials.gov)