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M. Benjamin Larkin, Robert Y. North, and Ashwin Viswanathan

Cordotomy has evolved since the first open procedure by Spiller and the first percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy by Mullan in 1965. Today, the minimally invasive, CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy is mostly used for the palliative management of medically intractable somatic pain related to malignancy in well-selected patients. The risk of adverse events is minimized with the use of intraoperative stimulation monitoring. This video highlights the spinal cord anatomy at the level of C1–2, the approach to patient selection, the associated risks and benefits, and, finally, the procedural setup and key steps involved in this unique neurosurgical procedure.

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Open access

M. Benjamin Larkin, Robert Y. North, Aditya Vedantam, and Ashwin Viswanathan

The traditional commissural myelotomy consists of a sagittal cut in the midline and was originally described by Greenfield and performed by Armour in 1926. Today, myelotomy refers to the selective disruption of the ascending visceral pain pathway. The success of the procedure is incumbent on the correct identification of the midline. Limited midline open myelotomy for the treatment of medically intractable abdominal or pelvic visceral cancer pain, with the aid of somatosensory evoked potentials to identify midline, offers patients superior pain relief over similar percutaneous techniques. Multicenter registries are needed to better elucidate the best surgical technique for this procedure.

The video can be found here:

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Patrick J. Karas, Robert Y. North, Visish M. Srinivasan, Nathan R. Lindquist, K. Kelly Gallagher, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Daniel Yoshor, and Peter Kan

The classic presentation of a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is unilateral painful proptosis, chemosis, and vision loss. Just as the goal of treatment for a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is obliteration of the entire fistulous connection and the proximal draining vein, the modern treatment of CCF is endovascular occlusion of the cavernous sinus via a transvenous or transarterial route. Here, the authors present the case of a woman with a paracavernous dAVF mimicking the clinical and radiographic presentation of a CCF. Without any endovascular route available to access the fistulous connection and venous drainage, the authors devised a novel direct hybrid approach by performing an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal direct puncture and Onyx embolization of the fistula.

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Visish M. Srinivasan, Robert Y. North, Vijay M. Ravindra, Jeremiah Johnson, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sandi K. Lam, and Peter Kan

Direct bypass has been used to salvage failed endovascular treatment; however, little is known of the reversed role of endovascular management for failed bypass.

The authors report the case of a 7-year-old patient who underwent a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for treatment of a giant MCA aneurysm and describe the role of endovascular rescue in this case. Post-bypass catheter angiogram showed occlusion of the proximal extracranial STA donor with patent anastomosis, possibly due to STA dissection. A self-expanding Neuroform Atlas stent was deployed across the dissection flap, and follow-up images showed revascularization of the STA with good MCA runoff.

This case demonstrates that direct extracranial-intracranial bypass failure can infrequently originate from the STA donor vessel and that superselective angiogram can be useful for identification and treatment in such cases. With more advanced endovascular techniques the tide has turned in the treatment of complex cerebrovascular cases, with this case being an early example of successful rescue stenting for endovascular management of a failed donor after STA-MCA bypass.