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Atilio E. Palma, Robert T. Wicks, Gautam Popli and Daniel E. Couture

Corpus callosotomy has been used as a form of surgical palliation for patients suffering from medically refractory generalized seizures, including drop attacks. Callosotomy has traditionally been described as involving a craniotomy with microdissection. MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRg-LITT) has recently been used as a minimally invasive method for performing surgical ablation of epileptogenic foci and corpus callosotomy. The authors present 3 cases in which MRg-LITT was used to perform a corpus callosotomy as part of a staged surgical procedure for a patient with multiple seizure types and in instances when further ablation of residual corpus callosum is necessary after a prior open surgical procedure. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case series of corpus callosotomy performed using the MRg-LITT system with a 3.3-year average follow-up. Although MRg-LITT is not expected to replace the traditional corpus callosotomy in all cases, it is a safe, effective, and durable alternative to the traditional open corpus callosotomy, particularly in the setting of a prior craniotomy.

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Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Douglas A. Hardesty, Brandon D. Liebelt and Peter Nakaji

Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have a near-universal association with cortical venous drainage and a malignant clinical course. Endovascular treatment options are often limited due to the high frequency of ophthalmic artery ethmoidal supply. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with syncope and was found to have a right ethmoidal DAVF. Rather than the traditional bicoronal craniotomy, an endoscope-assisted mini-pterional approach for clip ligation is demonstrated. The mini-pterional craniotomy allows a minimally invasive approach to ethmoidal DAVF via a lateral trajectory. The endoscope can help achieve full visualization in the narrow corridor.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ZroXp-T35DI.

Open access

Peyton L. Nisson, Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Whitney S. James, David Xu and Peter Nakaji

Cavernous malformations of the brain are low-flow vascular lesions that have a propensity to hemorrhage. Extensive surgical approaches are often required for operative cure of deep-seated lesions. A 23-year-old female presented with a cavernous malformation of the left posterior insula with surrounding hematoma measuring up to 3 cm. A minimally invasive (mini-)pterional craniotomy with a transsylvian approach was selected. Endoscopic assistance was utilized to confirm complete resection of the lesion. The minipterional craniotomy is a minimally invasive approach that provides optimal exposure for sylvian fissure dissection and resection of many temporal and insular lesions.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/9z6_EhU6lxs.

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Aravind Somasundaram, Robert T. Wicks, Adrian L. Lata, Shadi A. Qasem and Wesley Hsu

In this article, the authors describe a 48-year-old man who initially presented with progressively worsening back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft-tissue mass involving the T10–11 vertebral bodies with extension anteriorly into the aorta as well as epidural extension without spinal cord compression. A biopsy of the mass showed findings consistent with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). A total en bloc spondylectomy with resection and reconstruction of the involved aorta using a vascular graft was performed. The patient received postoperative radiation therapy and is neurologically intact at 18 months postoperatively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a spinal MFH resection with aortic reconstruction.

Open access

Xiaochun Zhao, Robert T. Wicks, Evgenii Belykh, Colin J. Przybylowski, Mohamed A. Labib and Peter Nakaji

Neurocysticercosis is primarily managed with anthelminthic, antiepileptic, and corticosteroid therapies. Surgical removal of the larval cyst is indicated when associated mass effect causes neurological symptoms, as demonstrated in two cases. Cyst resection was achieved via the far lateral approach for a cervicomedullary cyst in one patient and via the subtemporal approach for a mesencephalic cyst in another. The cyst wall should be kept intact, when possible, to avoid dissemination of the inflammation-evoking contents. As the contents are usually semisolid and can be removed via suction, it is not necessary to remove the gliotic capsule or adherent portions of the cyst wall in highly eloquent locations.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/GqbaJu5sy1o.

Free access

Robert T. Wicks, Mark R. Witcher, Daniel E. Couture, Adrian W. Laxton, Gautam Popli, Christopher T. Whitlow, Dustin Fetterhoff, Alexander S. Dakos, Brent M. Roeder, Sam A. Deadwyler and Robert E. Hampson

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial human brain recordings typically utilize recording systems that do not distinguish individual neuron action potentials. In such cases, individual neurons are not identified by location within functional circuits. In this paper, verified localization of singly recorded hippocampal neurons within the CA3 and CA1 cell fields is demonstrated.

METHODS

Macro-micro depth electrodes were implanted in 23 human patients undergoing invasive monitoring for identification of epileptic seizure foci. Individual neurons were isolated and identified via extracellular action potential waveforms recorded via macro-micro depth electrodes localized within the hippocampus. A morphometric survey was performed using 3T MRI scans of hippocampi from the 23 implanted patients, as well as 46 normal (i.e., nonepileptic) patients and 26 patients with a history of epilepsy but no history of depth electrode placement, which provided average dimensions of the hippocampus along typical implantation tracks. Localization within CA3 and CA1 cell fields was tentatively assigned on the basis of recording electrode site, stereotactic positioning of the depth electrode in comparison with the morphometric survey, and postsurgical MRI. Cells were selected as candidate CA3 and CA1 principal neurons on the basis of waveform and firing rate characteristics and confirmed within the CA3-to-CA1 neural projection pathways via measures of functional connectivity.

RESULTS

Cross-correlation analysis confirmed that nearly 80% of putative CA3-to-CA1 cell pairs exhibited positive correlations compatible with feed-forward connection between the cells, while only 2.6% exhibited feedback (inverse) connectivity. Even though synchronous and long-latency correlations were excluded, feed-forward correlation between CA3-CA1 pairs was identified in 1071 (26%) of 4070 total pairs, which favorably compares to reports of 20%–25% feed-forward CA3-CA1 correlation noted in published animal studies.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates the ability to record neurons in vivo from specified regions and subfields of the human brain. As brain-machine interface and neural prosthetic research continues to expand, it is necessary to be able to identify recording and stimulation sites within neural circuits of interest.

Free access

Xiaochun Zhao, Evgenii Belykh, Colin J. Przybylowski, Leandro Borba Moreira, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Claudio Cavallo, Daniel Valli, Robert T. Wicks and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas at the falcotentorial junction represent a rare subgroup of complex meningiomas. Debate remains regarding the appropriate treatment strategy for and optimal surgical approach to these tumors, and surgical outcomes have not been well described in the literature. The authors reviewed their single-institution experience in the management, approach selection, and outcomes for patients with falcotentorial meningiomas.

METHODS

From the medical records, the authors identified all patients with falcotentorial meningiomas treated with resection at the Barrow Neurological Institute between January 2007 and October 2017. Perioperative clinical, surgical, and radiographic data were retrospectively collected. For patients who underwent the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, the tentorial angle was defined as the angle between the line joining the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the tentorium in the midsagittal plane.

RESULTS

Falcotentorial meningiomas occurred in 0.97% (14/1441) of the patients with meningiomas. Most of the patients (13/14) were female, and the mean patient age was 59.8 ± 11.3 years. Of 17 total surgeries (20 procedures), 11 were single-stage primary surgeries, 3 were two-stage primary surgeries (6 procedures), 2 were reoperations for recurrence, and 1 was a reoperation after surgery had been aborted because of brain edema. Hydrocephalus was present in 5 of 17 cases, 4 of which required additional treatment. Various approaches were used, including the supracerebellar infratentorial (4/17), occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (4/17), anterior interhemispheric transsplenial (3/17), parietal transventricular (1/17), torcular (2/17), and staged supracerebellar infratentorial and occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (3/17) approaches. Of the 17 surgeries, 9 resulted in Simpson grade IV resection, and 3, 1, and 4 surgeries resulted in Simpson grades III, II, and I resection, respectively. The tentorial angle in cases with Simpson grade I resection was significantly smaller than in those with an unfavorable resection grade (43.3° ± 4.67° vs 54.0° ± 3.67°, p = 0.04). Complications occurred in 10 of 22 approaches (17 surgeries) and included visual field defects (6 cases, 2 permanent and 4 transient), hemiparesis (2 cases), hemidysesthesia (1 case), and cerebellar hematoma (1 case).

CONCLUSIONS

Falcotentorial meningiomas are challenging lesions. A steep tentorial angle is an unfavorable preoperative radiographic factor for achieving maximal resection with the supracerebellar infratentorial approach. Collectively, the study findings show that versatility is required to treat patients with falcotentorial meningiomas and that treatment goals and surgical approach must be individualized to obtain optimal surgical results.

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Xiaochun Zhao, Evgenii Belykh, Colin J. Przybylowski, Leandro Borba Moreira, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Claudio Cavallo, Daniel Valli, Robert T. Wicks and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas at the falcotentorial junction represent a rare subgroup of complex meningiomas. Debate remains regarding the appropriate treatment strategy for and optimal surgical approach to these tumors, and surgical outcomes have not been well described in the literature. The authors reviewed their single-institution experience in the management, approach selection, and outcomes for patients with falcotentorial meningiomas.

METHODS

From the medical records, the authors identified all patients with falcotentorial meningiomas treated with resection at the Barrow Neurological Institute between January 2007 and October 2017. Perioperative clinical, surgical, and radiographic data were retrospectively collected. For patients who underwent the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, the tentorial angle was defined as the angle between the line joining the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the tentorium in the midsagittal plane.

RESULTS

Falcotentorial meningiomas occurred in 0.97% (14/1441) of the patients with meningiomas. Most of the patients (13/14) were female, and the mean patient age was 59.8 ± 11.3 years. Of 17 total surgeries (20 procedures), 11 were single-stage primary surgeries, 3 were two-stage primary surgeries (6 procedures), 2 were reoperations for recurrence, and 1 was a reoperation after surgery had been aborted because of brain edema. Hydrocephalus was present in 5 of 17 cases, 4 of which required additional treatment. Various approaches were used, including the supracerebellar infratentorial (4/17), occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (4/17), anterior interhemispheric transsplenial (3/17), parietal transventricular (1/17), torcular (2/17), and staged supracerebellar infratentorial and occipital transtentorial/transfalcine (3/17) approaches. Of the 17 surgeries, 9 resulted in Simpson grade IV resection, and 3, 1, and 4 surgeries resulted in Simpson grades III, II, and I resection, respectively. The tentorial angle in cases with Simpson grade I resection was significantly smaller than in those with an unfavorable resection grade (43.3° ± 4.67° vs 54.0° ± 3.67°, p = 0.04). Complications occurred in 10 of 22 approaches (17 surgeries) and included visual field defects (6 cases, 2 permanent and 4 transient), hemiparesis (2 cases), hemidysesthesia (1 case), and cerebellar hematoma (1 case).

CONCLUSIONS

Falcotentorial meningiomas are challenging lesions. A steep tentorial angle is an unfavorable preoperative radiographic factor for achieving maximal resection with the supracerebellar infratentorial approach. Collectively, the study findings show that versatility is required to treat patients with falcotentorial meningiomas and that treatment goals and surgical approach must be individualized to obtain optimal surgical results.