Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 14 items for

  • Author or Editor: Robert S. Turner x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Alex K. Wu, Kevin W. McCairn, Gabriel Zada, Tiffany Wu and Robert S. Turner

Object

The authors sought to examine the therapeutic efficacy of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)–treated macaques and to characterize therapeutic differences with varying modes, frequencies, and durations of stimulation.

Methods

Motor cortex stimulation was delivered at currents below motor threshold and at frequencies between 5 and 150 Hz through epidural electrodes over the primary motor cortex. The animals were studied during and without MCS using video analysis, activity logging, and food retrieval tasks. Animals were examined using two different stimulation protocols. The first protocol consisted of 1 hour of MCS therapy daily. The second protocol exposed the animal to continuous MCS for more than 24 hours with at least 2 weeks between MCS treatments.

Conclusions

Daily MCS yielded no consistent change in symptoms, but MCS at 2-week intervals resulted in significant increases in activity. Effects of biweekly MCS disappeared, however, within 24 hours of the onset of continuous MCS. In this study, MCS only temporarily reduced the severity of MPTP-induced parkinsonism.

Restricted access

Chadwick W. Christine, J. William Langston, Robert S. Turner and Philip A. Starr

Parkinsonism caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure was first identified in intravenous drug users. This neurotoxicant has since been used extensively in nonhuman primates to induce an experimental model of Parkinson disease (PD). In this study, the authors examined the intraoperative physiological characteristics and efficacy of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 1 of only 4 known living patients with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. The physiological recordings were consistent with recordings from MPTP-treated primates and humans with PD, thus providing further validation for the MPTP model in the study of the neurophysiology of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit in PD. Furthermore, DBS produced a significant clinical improvement in this patient similar to the improvement seen after DBS in patients with idiopathic PD. This unique case has important implications for translational research that employs the MPTP-primate model for symptomatic therapy in PD.

Full access

Philip A. Starr, Robert S. Turner, Geoff Rau, Nadja Lindsey, Susan Heath, Monica Volz, Jill L. Ostrem and William J. Marks Jr.

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a promising new procedure for the treatment of dystonia. The authors present their technical approach for placement of electrodes into the GPi in awake patients with dystonia, including the methodology used for electrophysiological mapping of the GPi in the dystonic state, clinical outcomes and complications, and the location of electrodes associated with optimal benefit.

Methods

Twenty-three adult and pediatric patients who had various forms of dystonia were included in this study. Baseline neurological status and improvement in motor function resulting from DBS were measured using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Implantation of the DBS lead was performed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–based stereotaxy, single-cell microelectrode recording, and intraoperative test stimulation to determine thresholds for stimulation-induced adverse effects. Electrode locations were measured on computationally reformatted postoperative MR images according to a prospective protocol.

Conclusions

Physiologically guided implantation of DBS electrodes in patients with dystonia is technically feasible in the awake state in most cases, with low morbidity rates. Spontaneous discharge rates of GPi neurons in dystonia are similar to those of globus pallidus externus neurons, such that the two nuclei must be distinguished by neuronal discharge patterns rather than by rates. Active electrode locations associated with robust improvement (> 50% decrease in BFMDRS score) were located near the intercommissural plane, at a mean distance of 3.7 mm from the pallidocapsular border. Patients with juvenile-onset primary dystonia and those with the tardive form benefited greatly from this procedure, whereas benefits for most secondary dystonias and the adult-onset craniocervical form of this disorder were more modest.

Full access

G. Bryan Cornwall, Christopher P. Ames, Neil R. Crawford, Robert H. Chamberlain, Anthony M. Rubino, Howard B. Seim III and A. Simon Turner

Object

An in vivo study was conducted in an ovine model to investigate the biomechanical changes after the animals underwent single-level anterior cervical discectomy followed by fusion in which autologous tricortical graft was used and implantation of cervical plates for which bioresorbable polymer screws and plates were used. The specific aims of the study were to evaluate whether implant failure or screw backout would occur over time and to measure the change in stiffness at the treated level at various postoperative time periods (3, 6, and 12 months).

Methods

A total of 58 x-ray films were evaluated over the 12-month survival period. No screw breakage or displacement was observed in any animal during the temporal radiographic analysis. Radiographically confirmed fusion appeared to be complete at all time periods longer than 6 months. The biomechanical testing demonstrated dramatic reductions in range of motion at the fusion level in the animals allowed to survive for 6 and 12 months, indicating complete fusion after 6 months.

Conclusions

The bioresorbable polymer cervical graft containment system appears to provide a safe and effective alternative for cervical fusion, and warrants further clinical evaluation for its use in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion without postoperative orthosis.

Restricted access

Scott J. Turner, Mark A. Dexter, James E. H. Smith and Robert Ouvrier

Neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions of endodermal origin occurring in the spinal canal and infrequently in the posterior cranial fossa. The authors report the case of a 3-year-old child who presented with a recurrent third cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large cystic mass lesion in the ambient cistern on the right side, with compression of the anterolateral aspect of the brainstem. The patient underwent a craniotomy, complete excision, and a primary third cranial nerve repair. While there have been 3 reported cases of neurenteric cysts arising from the oculomotor nerve, this is the first documented case with a primary nerve repair.

Restricted access

Philip A. Starr, Robert S. Turner, Geoff Rau, Nadja Lindsey, Susan Heath, Monica Volz, Jill L. Ostrem and William J. Marks Jr.

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPI) is a promising new procedure for the treatment of dystonia. The authors describe their technical approach for placing electrodes into the GPI in awake patients with dystonia, including methodology for electrophysiological mapping of the GPI in the dystonic state, clinical outcomes and complications, and the location of electrodes associated with optimal benefit.

Methods

Twenty-three adult and pediatric patients with various forms of dystonia were included in this study. Baseline neurological status and DBS-related improvement in motor function were measured using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). The implantation of DBS leads was performed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–based stereotaxy, single-cell microelectrode recording, and intraoperative test stimulation to determine thresholds for stimulation-induced adverse effects. Electrode locations were measured on computationally reformatted postoperative MR images according to a prospective protocol.

Conclusions

Physiologically guided implantation of DBS electrodes in patients with dystonia was technically feasible in the awake state in most patients, and the morbidity rate was low. Spontaneous discharge rates of GPI neurons in dystonia were similar to those of globus pallidus externus neurons, such that the two nuclei must be distinguished by neuronal discharge patterns rather than rates. Active electrode locations associated with robust improvement (> 70% decrease in BFMDRS score) were located near the intercommissural plane, at a mean distance from the pallidocapsular border of 3.6 mm.

Free access

Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Jennifer M. Eschbacher, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Jay D. Turner, Evgenii Belykh, Robert F. Spetzler, Peter Nakaji and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

This study evaluated the utility, specificity, and sensitivity of intraoperative confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) to provide diagnostic information during resection of human brain tumors.

METHODS

CLE imaging was used in the resection of intracranial neoplasms in 74 consecutive patients (31 male; mean age 47.5 years; sequential 10-month study period). Intraoperative in vivo and ex vivo CLE was performed after intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium (FNa). Tissue samples from CLE imaging–matched areas were acquired for comparison with routine histological analysis (frozen and permanent sections). CLE images were classified as diagnostic or nondiagnostic. The specificities and sensitivities of CLE and frozen sections for gliomas and meningiomas were calculated using permanent histological sections as the standard.

RESULTS

CLE images were obtained for each patient. The mean duration of intraoperative CLE system use was 15.7 minutes (range 3–73 minutes). A total of 20,734 CLE images were correlated with 267 biopsy specimens (mean number of images/biopsy location, in vivo 84, ex vivo 70). CLE images were diagnostic for 45.98% in vivo and 52.97% ex vivo specimens. After initiation of CLE, an average of 14 in vivo images and 7 ex vivo images were acquired before identification of a first diagnostic image. CLE specificity and sensitivity were, respectively, 94% and 91% for gliomas and 93% and 97% for meningiomas.

CONCLUSIONS

CLE with FNa provided intraoperative histological information during brain tumor removal. Specificities and sensitivities of CLE for gliomas and meningiomas were comparable to those for frozen sections. These data suggest that CLE could allow the interactive identification of tumor areas, substantially improving intraoperative decisions during the resection of brain tumors.