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Berendina E. Veerbeek, Robert P. Lamberts, A. Graham Fieggen, Ncedile Mankahla, Richard V. P. de Villiers, Elsabe Botha and Nelleke G. Langerak


The main purpose of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is to reduce spasticity in the lower extremities of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) and spastic diplegia. The potential for developing spinal abnormalities and pain is a concern, especially in the aging CP population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate spinal abnormalities, level of pain, and disability (due to back or leg pain) in adults with CP, and associations with participant characteristics, more than 25 years after SDR.


This is a 9-year follow-up study with data collection conducted in 2008 and 2017. Radiographs were assessed for the degree of scoliosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures, and prevalence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, while level of pain and disability was determined with a self-developed questionnaire and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, respectively.


Twenty-five participants were included (15 males; median age 35.9 years, IQR 34.3–41.5 years), with a follow-up time after SDR ranging from 25 to 35 years. No clinically relevant changes were found for spinal curvatures, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, perceived pain frequency, and ODI scores between 2008 and 2017. While the prevalence of spondylolysis was 44%, spondylolisthesis was found in 20% (of whom 15% were grade I and 5% grade II), lumbar hyperlordosis was found in 32%, thoracic hyperkyphosis in 4%, and scoliosis in 20%. The Cobb angle was < 25°, and no patient required surgery for scoliosis. In addition, the low back was reported as the most common site of pain, with 28% of the adults with CP having daily pain. This resulted in 80% of the cohort indicating none or minimal disability due to pain based on the ODI. The only correlation found was between hyperkyphosis and female gender.


At follow-up more than 25 years after SDR, no progression in spinal abnormalities, level of pain, and disability was found when compared with findings 15 years after SDR. The prevalence of scoliosis, thoracic hyperkyphosis, and lumbar hyperlordosis was within the range reported for adults with CP, while spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis occurred more often than would be expected. It is difficult, however, to establish the role of SDR in this finding, given the limited data on the natural history of CP. Despite the encouraging outcome of this long-term follow-up study after SDR, it is important to continue monitoring adults with CP during the aging process.

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Nelleke G. Langerak, Robert P. Lamberts, A. Graham Fieggen, Jonathan C. Peter, Lize van der Merwe, Warwick J. Peacock and Christopher L. Vaughan


Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been widely performed for the reduction of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy during the past 2 decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether the surgery has yielded long-term functional benefits for these patients.


The authors present results from a prospective 20-year follow-up study of locomotor function in 13 patients who underwent an SDR in 1985. For comparison, we also present gait data for 48 age-matched healthy controls (12 at each of 4 time points). Patients were studied preoperatively and then at 1, 3, 10, and 20 years after surgery. Study participants were recorded in the sagittal plane while walking using a digital video camera, and 6 standard gait parameters were measured.


In this group of patients 20 years after surgery, knee range of motion (ROM) was on average 12° greater than preoperative values (p < 0.001). Hip ROM before surgery was no different from that in the healthy control group. This parameter increased markedly immediately after surgery (p < 0.001) but had returned to normal after 20 years. The knee and hip midrange values—a measure of the degree of “collapse” due to muscle weakness after surgery—had returned to preoperative levels after 20 years, although they were respectively 11 and 8° greater than those in healthy controls. Both temporal-distance parameters (dimensionless cadence and dimensionless step length) were significantly greater at 20 years than preoperative values (cadence, p = 0.003; step length, p = 0.02), leading to improved walking speed.


Twenty years after undergoing SDR, our patients showed improved locomotor function compared with their preoperative status.