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Diane C. McLaughlin, Rebecca L. Achey, Robert Geertman and Jonah Grossman

Herpes simplex encephalitis is a common viral encephalitis associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated early. Neurosurgery may be an impetus for viral reactivation, either from direct nerve manipulation or high-dose steroids often administered during cases. The authors present the 40th known case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis following neurosurgical intervention and review the previously reported cases. In their review, the authors observed positive HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which had initially been negative in several cases. In cases in which there is high suspicion of HSV, it may be prudent to continue antiviral therapy and retest CSF for HSV PCR. Antiviral therapy significantly reduces mortality associated with HSV encephalitis.

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Sunil Manjila, Efrem M. Cox, Gabriel A. Smith, Mark Corriveau, Nipun Chhabra, Freedom Johnson and Robert T. Geertman


There are several surgical techniques for reducing blood loss—open surgical and endoscopic—prior to resection of giant anterior skull base meningiomas, especially when preoperative embolization is risky or not technically feasible. The authors present examples of an institutional experience using surgical ligation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries producing persistent tumor blush in partially embolized tumors.


The authors identified 12 patients who underwent extracranial surgical ligation of ethmoidal arteries through either a transcaruncular or a Lynch approach. Of these, 3 patients had giant olfactory groove or planum sphenoidale meningiomas. After approval from the institution privacy officer, the authors studied the medical records and imaging data of these 3 patients, with special attention to surgical technique and outcome. The variations of ethmoidal artery foramina pertaining to this surgical approach were studied using preserved human skulls from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection at the Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio.


The extracranial ligation was performed successfully for control of the ethmoidal arteries prior to resection of hypervascular giant anterior skull base meningiomas. The surgical anatomy and landmarks for ethmoidal arteries were reviewed in anthropology specimens and available literature with reference to described surgical techniques.


Extracranial surgical ligation of anterior, and often posterior, ethmoidal arteries prior to resection of large olfactory groove or planum sphenoidale meningiomas provides a safe and feasible option for control of these vessels prior to either open or endoscopic resection of nonembolized or partially embolized tumors.

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Gabriel A. Smith, Arshneel S. Kochar, Sunil Manjila, Kaine Onwuzulike, Robert T. Geertman, James S. Anderson and Michael P. Steinmetz

Despite the increasing prevalence of spinal infections, the subcategory of holospinal epidural abscesses (HEAs) is extremely infrequent and requires unique management. Panspinal imaging (preferably MRI), modern aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention remain the standard of care for all spinal axis infections including HEAs; however, the surgical decision making on timing and extent of the procedure still remain ill defined for HEAs. Decompression including skip laminectomies or laminoplasties is described, with varied clinical outcomes. In this review the authors present the illustrative cases of 2 patients with HEAs who were treated using skip laminectomies and epidural catheter irrigation techniques. The discussion highlights different management strategies including the role of conservative (nonsurgical) management in these lesions, especially with an already identified pathogen and the absence of mass effect on MRI or significant neurological defects.

Among fewer than 25 case reports of HEA published in the past 25 years, the most important aspect in deciding a role for surgery is the neurological examination. Nearly 20% were treated successfully with medical therapy alone if neurologically intact. None of the reported cases had an associated cranial infection with HEA, because the dural adhesion around the foramen magnum prevented rostral spread of infection. Traditionally a posterior approach to the epidural space with irrigation is performed, unless an extensive focal ventral collection is causing cord compression. Surgical intervention for HEA should be an adjuvant treatment strategy for all acutely deteriorating patients, whereas aspiration of other infected sites like a psoas abscess can determine an infective pathogen, and appropriate antibiotic treatment may avoid surgical intervention in the neurologically intact patient.