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Haariss Ilyas, Joshua L. Golubovsky, Jingxiao Chen, Robert D. Winkelman, Thomas E. Mroz, and Michael P. Steinmetz

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for 90-day readmission and reoperation after elective surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective consecutive cohort analysis of patients undergoing posterior lumbar decompression with or without fusion for LSS with claudication from January 2014 through December 2015.

RESULTS

Data were collected on 1592 consecutive patients. The mean age at surgery was 67.4 ± 10.1 years and 45% of patients were female. The 90-day reoperation rate was 4.7%, and 69.3% of the reoperations occurred within the first 30 days. The 90-day readmission rate was 7.2%. Multivariable analysis showed that postoperative development of a surgical site infection (SSI; odds ratio [OR] 14.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.86–25.18), acute kidney injury (AKI; OR 6.76, 95% CI 2.39–19.57), and urinary tract infection (UTI; OR 3.96, 95% CI 2.43–6.37), as well as a history of congestive heart failure (CHF; OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.69–5.28), were significant risk factors for readmission within 90 days. Male sex (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38–0.92) was associated with decreased odds for readmission. With regards to reoperation, development of SSI (OR 25.06, 95% CI 13.54–46.51), sepsis (OR 7.63, 95% CI 1.52–40.59), UTI (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.31–4.76), and increased length of stay (LOS; OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.33) were found to be significant risk factors. A subsequent analysis found that morbid obesity (OR 6.99), history of coronary artery disease (OR 2.263), increased duration of surgery (OR 1.004), and LOS (OR 1.07) were significant risk factors for developing an SSI.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, this study found rates of 4.7% and 7.2% for reoperation and readmission, respectively, within 90 days: 30.7% of the reoperations and 44.7% of the readmissions occurred beyond the first 30 days. A diagnosis of SSI, AKI, UTI, and history of CHF were significant factors for readmission, while male sex was associated with decreased odds for readmission. A diagnosis of SSI, sepsis, UTI, and increased LOS were found to be significant predictors for reoperation. Understanding 90-day complication rates is imperative because there has been increased discussion and healthcare policy extending the global postoperative window to 90 days. Current literature supports a readmission rate of 3%–9% after spine surgery. However, this literature either is limited to a 30-day window or does not stratify between different types of spine surgeries.

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Jay M. Levin, Robert D. Winkelman, Joseph E. Tanenbaum, Edward C. Benzel, Thomas E. Mroz, and Michael P. Steinmetz

OBJECTIVE

The Patient Experience of Care, composed of 9 dimensions derived from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, is being used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to adjust hospital reimbursement. Currently, there are minimal data on how scores on the constituent HCAHPS items impact the global dimension of satisfaction, the Overall Hospital Rating (OHR). The purpose of this study was to determine the key drivers of overall patient satisfaction in the setting of inpatient lumbar spine surgery.

METHODS

Demographic and preoperative patient characteristics were obtained. Patients selecting a top-box score for OHR (a 9 or 10 of 10) were considered to be satisfied with their hospital experience. A baseline multivariable logistic regression model was then developed to analyze the association between patient characteristics and top-box OHR. Then, multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for patient-level covariates were used to determine the association between individual components of the HCAHPS survey and a top-box OHR.

RESULTS

A total of 453 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery were included, 80.1% of whom selected a top-box OHR. Diminishing overall health status (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.91) was negatively associated with top-box OHR. After adjusting for potential confounders, the survey items that were associated with the greatest increased odds of selecting a top-box OHR were: staff always did everything they could to help with pain (OR 12.5, 95% CI 6.6–23.7), and nurses were always respectful (OR 11.0, 95% CI 5.3–22.6).

CONCLUSIONS

Patient experience of care is increasingly being used to determine hospital and physician reimbursement. The present study analyzed the key drivers of patient experience among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery and found several important associations. Patient overall health status was associated with top-box OHR. After adjusting for potential confounders, staff always doing everything they could to help with pain and nurses always being respectful were the strongest predictors of overall satisfaction in this population. These findings highlight opportunities for quality improvement efforts in the spine care setting.

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Nicholas M. Rabah, Hammad A. Khan, Jay M. Levin, Robert D. Winkelman, Thomas E. Mroz, and Michael P. Steinmetz

OBJECTIVE

The Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CG-CAHPS) survey was developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as a result of their value-based purchasing initiative. It allows patients to rate their experience with their provider in the outpatient setting. This presents a unique situation in healthcare in which the patient experience drives the marketplace, and since its creation, providers have sought to improve patient satisfaction. Within the spine surgery setting, however, the question remains whether improved patient satisfaction correlates with improved outcomes.

METHODS

All patients who had undergone lumbar spine surgery between 2009 and 2017 and who completed a CG-CAHPS survey after their procedure were studied. Demographic and surgical characteristics were then obtained. The primary outcomes of this study include patient-reported health outcomes measures such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health (PROMIS-GH) surveys for both mental health (PROMIS-GH-MH) and physical health (PROMIS-GH-PH), and the visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP). A multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess whether patient satisfaction with their provider was associated with changes in each health status measure after adjusting for potential confounders.

RESULTS

The study population included 647 patients who had undergone lumbar spine surgery. Of these, 564 (87%) indicated that they were satisfied with the care they received. Demographic and surgical characteristics were largely similar between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated that patient satisfaction with their provider was not a significant predictor of change in two of the three patient-reported outcomes (PROMIS-GH-MH and PROMIS-GH-PH) assessed at 1 year. However, top-box patient satisfaction with their provider was a significant predictor of improvement in VAS-BP scores at 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that after adjusting for patient-level covariates such as age, diagnosis of disc displacement, self-reported mental health, self-reported overall health, and preoperative patient-reported outcome measure status, a significant association was observed between top-box overall provider rating and 1-year improvement in VAS-BP, but no such association was observed for PROMIS-GH-PH and PROMIS-GH-MH. This suggests that pain-related outcome measures may serve as better predictors of patients’ satisfaction with their spine surgeons. Furthermore, this suggests that the current method by which patient satisfaction is being assessed and publicly reported may not necessarily correlate with validated measures that are used within the spine surgery setting to assess surgical efficacy.