Complications from percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) and kyphoplasty are rare and are most commonly related to cement leakage. Pseudoaneurysm of the segmental arteries has not been reported as a complication of PV in the literature. In this article, the authors describe 2 patients who presented with a lumbar pseudoaneurysm after undergoing PV at other institutions. The authors also review the optimal technique to avoid such vascular complications.
Ajit S. Puri, Rivka R. Colen, Arra S. Reddy, Michael W. Groff, Diane DiNobile, Timothy Killoran, Boris Nikolic and Ajith J. Thomas
Arvind Rao, Ganesh Rao, David A. Gutman, Adam E. Flanders, Scott N. Hwang, Daniel L. Rubin, Rivka R. Colen, Pascal O. Zinn, Rajan Jain, Max Wintermark, Justin S. Kirby, C. Carl Jaffe, John Freymann and TCGA Glioma Phenotype Research Group
Individual MRI characteristics (e.g., volume) are routinely used to identify survival-associated phenotypes for glioblastoma (GBM). This study investigated whether combinations of MRI features can also stratify survival. Furthermore, the molecular differences between phenotype-induced groups were investigated.
Ninety-two patients with imaging, molecular, and survival data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas)-GBM collection were included in this study. For combinatorial phenotype analysis, hierarchical clustering was used. Groups were defined based on a cutpoint obtained via tree-based partitioning. Furthermore, differential expression analysis of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression data was performed using GenePattern Suite. Functional analysis of the resulting genes and miRNAs was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Pathway analysis was performed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis.
Clustering analysis reveals that image-based grouping of the patients is driven by 3 features: volume-class, hemorrhage, and T1/FLAIR-envelope ratio. A combination of these features stratifies survival in a statistically significant manner. A cutpoint analysis yields a significant survival difference in the training set (median survival difference: 12 months, p = 0.004) as well as a validation set (p = 0.0001). Specifically, a low value for any of these 3 features indicates favorable survival characteristics. Differential expression analysis between cutpoint-induced groups suggests that several immune-associated (natural killer cell activity, T-cell lymphocyte differentiation) and metabolism-associated (mitochondrial activity, oxidative phosphorylation) pathways underlie the transition of this phenotype. Integrating data for mRNA and miRNA suggests the roles of several genes regulating proliferation and invasion.
A 3-way combination of MRI phenotypes may be capable of stratifying survival in GBM. Examination of molecular processes associated with groups created by this combinatorial phenotype suggests the role of biological processes associated with growth and invasion characteristics.
Markus M. Luedi, Sanjay K. Singh, Jennifer C. Mosley, Islam S. A. Hassan, Masumeh Hatami, Joy Gumin, Lukas Andereggen, Erik P. Sulman, Frederick F. Lang, Frank Stueber, Gregory N. Fuller, Rivka R. Colen and Pascal O. Zinn
Dexamethasone, a known regulator of mesenchymal programming in glioblastoma (GBM), is routinely used to manage edema in GBM patients. Dexamethasone also activates the expression of genes, such as CEBPB, in GBM stem cells (GSCs). However, the drug’s impact on invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in GBM remains unclear. To determine whether dexamethasone induces invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in GBM, the authors investigated the drug’s impact in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical information derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort.
Expression profiles of patients from the TCGA cohort with mesenchymal GBM (n = 155) were compared with patients with proneural GBM by comparative marker selection. To obtain robust data, GSCs with IDH1 wild-type (GSC3) and with IDH1 mutant (GSC6) status were exposed to dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo and analyzed for invasion (Boyden chamber, human-specific nucleolin), proliferation (Ki-67), and angiogenesis (CD31). Ex vivo tumor cells from dexamethasone-treated and control mice were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting and profiled using Affymetrix chips for mRNA (HTA 2.0) and microRNAs (miRNA 4.0). A pathway analysis was performed to identify a dexamethasone-regulated gene signature, and its relationship with overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis in the entire GBM TCGA cohort (n = 520).
The mesenchymal subgroup, when compared with the proneural subgroup, had significant upregulation of a dexamethasone-regulated gene network, as well as canonical pathways of proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Dexamethasone-treated GSC3 demonstrated a significant increase in invasion, both in vitro and in vivo, whereas GSC6 demonstrated a modest increase. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment of both GSC3 and GSC6 lines resulted in significantly elevated cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo. Patients with mesenchymal GBM had significant upregulation of dexamethasone-regulated pathways when compared with patients with proneural GBM. A prognostic (p = 0.0007) 33-gene signature was derived from the ex vivo expression profile analyses and used to dichotomize the entire TCGA cohort by high (median OS 12.65 months) or low (median OS 14.91 months) dexamethasone signature.
The authors present evidence that furthers the understanding of the complex effects of dexamethasone on biological characteristics of GBM. The results suggest that the drug increases invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis in human GSC-derived orthotopic tumors, potentially worsening GBM patients’ prognoses. The authors believe that careful investigation is needed to determine how to minimize these deleterious dexamethasone-associated side effects in GBM.