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Syed I. Khalid, Ryan Kelly, Rita Wu, Akhil Peta, Adam Carlton and Owoicho Adogwa

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to assess the relationship of comorbidities and postoperative complications to rates of readmission for geriatric patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) involving more than 2 levels on an inpatient or outpatient basis. With the rising costs of healthcare in the United States, understanding the safety and efficacy of performing common surgical interventions (including ACDF) as outpatient procedures could prove to be of great economic impact.Objective This study aims to assess the effect of comorbidities and postoperative complications on the rates of readmission of geriatric patients undergoing multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures (i.e., ACDF involving 3 or more levels) on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Same-day surgery has been demonstrated to be a safe and cost-effective alternative to the traditional inpatient option for many surgical interventions. With the rising costs of healthcare, understanding the safety and efficacy of performing common surgical interventions as outpatient procedures could prove to be of great economic impact.

METHODS

The study population included total of 2492 patients: 2348 inpatients and 144 outpatients having ACDF procedures involving 3 or more levels in the Medicare Standard Analytical Files database. Age, sex, comorbidities, postoperative complications, readmission rates, and surgical procedure charges were compared between both cohorts. For selected variables, logistic regression was used to model odds ratios for various comorbidities against readmission rates for both inpatient and outpatient cohorts. Chi-square tests were also calculated to compare these comorbidities with readmission in each cohort.

RESULTS

Overall complication rates within 30 postoperative days were greater for inpatients than for outpatients (44.2% vs 12.5%, p < 0.001). More inpatients developed postoperative urinary tract infection (7.9% vs 0%, p < 0.001), and the inpatient cohort had increased risk of readmission with comorbidities of anemia (OR 1.52, p < 0.001), smoking (OR 2.12, p < 0.001), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR 1.43, p < 0.001). Outpatients had increased risk of readmission with comorbidities of anemia (OR 2.78, p = 0.047), diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 (OR 3.25, p = 0.033), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR 3.95, p = 0.008). Inpatients also had increased readmission risk with a postoperative complication of surgical site infection (OR 2.38, p < 0.001). The average charges for inpatient multilevel ACDF were significantly higher than for multilevel ACDF performed on an outpatient basis ($12,734.27 vs $12,152.18, p = 0.0019).

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that ACDF surgery involving 3 or more levels performed as an outpatient procedure in the geriatric population may be associated with lower rates of readmissions, complications, and surgical charges.

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Syed I. Khalid, Ryan Kelly, Adam Carlton, Owoicho Adogwa, Patrick Kim, Arjun Ranade, Jessica Moreno, Samantha Maasarani, Rita Wu, Patrick Melville and Jonathan Citow

OBJECTIVE

With the costs related to the United States medical system constantly rising, efforts are being made to turn traditional inpatient procedures into outpatient same-day surgeries. In this study the authors looked at the various comorbidities and perioperative complications and their impact on readmission rates of patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient 3- and 4-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of 337 3- and 4- level ACDF procedures in 332 patients (5 patients had both primary and revision surgeries that were included in this total of 337 procedures) between May 2012 and June 2017. In total, 331 procedures were analyzed, as 6 patients were lost to follow-up. Outpatient surgery was performed for 299 procedures (102 4-level procedures and 197 3-level procedures), and inpatient surgery was performed for 32 procedures (11 4-level procedures and 21 3-level procedures). Age, sex, comorbidities, number of fusion levels, pain level, and perioperative complications were compared between both cohorts.

RESULTS

Analysis was performed for 331 3- and 4-level ACDF procedures done at 6 different hospitals. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 1.2% (outpatient 3 [1.0%] vs inpatient 1 [3.1%], p = 0.847). Outpatients had increased readmission risk, with comorbidities of coronary artery disease (OR 1.058, p = 0.039), autoimmune disease (OR 1.142, p = 0.006), diabetes (OR 1.056, p = 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (OR 0.933, p = 0.035). Perioperative complications of delirium (OR 2.709, p < 0.001) and surgical site infection (OR 2.709, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of 30-day hospital readmission in outpatients compared to inpatients.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of 3- and 4-level ACDF surgery, although various comorbidities and perioperative complications may lead to higher readmission rates. Patient selection for outpatient 3- and 4-level ACDF cases might play a role in the safety of performing these procedures in the ambulatory setting, but further studies are needed to accurately identify which factors are most pertinent for appropriate selection.