Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rick Sasso x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Michael P. Kelly, Paul A. Anderson, Rick C. Sasso and K. Daniel Riew

OBJECT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively.

RESULTS

Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker’s Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong −52.3, weak −50.6, naïve −54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong −52.7, weak −50.8, naïve −44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong −36.0, weak −33.3, naïve −32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient population.

Full access

Praveen V. Mummaneni, Valli P. Mummaneni, Regis W. Haid Jr., Gerald E. Rodts Jr. and Rick C. Sasso

The correction of chin-on-chest deformity is challenging and requires combined anterior and posterior approaches to the cervical spine. The authors describe a cervical osteotomy technique for the correction of chin-on-chest deformity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This procedure can be accomplished using a posterior screw rod construct combined with an anterior hybrid plate system.

In patients with AS, a “front-back-front” approach may be necessary because of the deformity's rigidity. The authors describe the complicated intubation and anesthetic requirements for this approach. They performed an anterior discectomy, cervical osteotomy, and unilateral pediculectomy but did not place anterior instrumentation. Via a posterior approach, laminectomies, facetectomies, and the contralateral pediculectomy were then undertaken. A posterior cervical screw/rod system was placed and loosely connected to titanium rods. Intraoperatively the deformity was corrected by placing the neck in extension combined with compression of the posterior screws on the rods. The posterior construct is then tightened. Finally, an anterior cervical approach is performed to place a structural interbody graft and a hybrid anterior cervical plate construct.

The authors have successfully used this approach to correct a chin-on-chest deformity in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. At 1-year follow-up examination, excellent resolution of the deformity and solid fusion had been achieved. They prefer to perform this procedure by using state-of-the-art anterior and posterior instrumentation systems.

Restricted access

Ryan Snowden, Justin Miller, Tome Saidon, Joseph D. Smucker, K. Daniel Riew and Rick Sasso

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to compare the effect of index level sagittal alignment on cephalad radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) in patients undergoing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected radiographic data from 79 patients who underwent TDA or ACDF and were enrolled and followed prospectively at two centers in a multicenter FDA investigational device exemption trial of the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis used for arthroplasty. Neutral lateral radiographs were obtained pre- and postoperatively and at 1, 2, 4, and up to 7 years following surgery. The index level Cobb angle was measured both pre- and postoperatively. Cephalad disc degeneration was determined by a previously described measurement of the disc height/anteroposterior (AP) distance ratio.

RESULTS

Sixty-eight patients (n = 33 ACDF; n = 35 TDA) had complete radiographs and were included for analysis. Preoperatively, there was no difference in the index level Cobb angle between the ACDF and TDA patients. Postoperatively, the ACDF patients had a larger segment lordosis compared to the TDA patients (p = 0.002). Patients who had a postoperative kyphotic Cobb angle were more likely to have undergone TDA (p = 0.01). A significant decrease in the disc height/AP distance ratio occurred over time (p = 0.035), by an average of 0.01818 at 84 months. However, this decrease was not influenced by preoperative alignment, postoperative alignment, or type of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort of patients undergoing TDA and ACDF, the authors found that preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment have no effect on RASP at follow-up of at least 7 years. They identified time as the only significant factor affecting RASP.

Full access

Praveen V. Mummaneni, Regis W. Haid, Vincent C. Traynelis, Rick C. Sasso, Brian R. Subach, Amory J. Fiore and Gerald E. Rodts

Object

Standard lateral mass plate and screw systems are of limited use in patients with abnormal cervical anatomy and do not easily allow for extension to either the occipit or the thoracic spine. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety, surgical efficacy, and advantages of a new cervical polyaxial screw and rod system for posterior occipitocervicothoracic arthrodesis.

Methods

The authors reviewed a multicenter series of patients who underwent surgery in which they used a new posterior cervical polyaxial screw and rod system. The system was implanted in 32 (20 women and 12 men) adult patients (mean age 56.9 years, range 23–84 years). Twentythree of the patients were treated for spondylostenosis; four for cervical fracture/dislocations; four for kyphosis; and one patient was treated for pseudarthrosis that developed after prior surgery.

The system was successfully implanted in all patients despite the presence of anatomical lateral mass anomalies in the majority of cases. The mean number of levels fused was 3.9 (range one–eight levels). This dynamic system allowed for screw placement into the occiput, C-1 lateral masses, C-2 pars, C3–7 lateral masses, and low cervical as well as upper thoracic pedicles. Selective application of compressive or distractive forces was possible in adjacent segments. Surgery-related complications included one dural tear and one malpositioned screw. There were two cases of wound infection.

Conclusions

Unlike standard lateral mass plate and screw systems, the new cervical polyaxial screw and rod system easily accommodates severe degenerative cervical spondylosis and curvatures. This instrumentation system allows for polyaxial screw placement with subsequent multiplanar rod contouring and offset attachment. The authors have used this system successfully, and without significant complications, to achieve posterior cervical arthrodesis.

Full access

Melvin D. Helgeson, Ronald A. Lehman Jr., Anton E. Dmitriev, Daniel G. Kang, Rick C. Sasso, Chadi Tannoury and K. Daniel Riew

Object

Intraoperative imaging often does not provide adequate visualization to ensure safe placement of screws. Therefore, the authors investigated the accuracy of a freehand technique for placement of pars, pedicle, and intralaminar screws in C-2.

Methods

Sixteen cadaveric specimens were instrumented freehand by 2 experienced cervical spine surgeons with either a pars or pedicle screw, and bilateral intralaminar screws. The technique was based on anatomical starting points and published screw trajectories. A pedicle finder was used to establish the trajectory, followed by tapping, palpation, and screw placement. After placement of all screws (16 pars screws, 16 pedicle screws, and 32 intralaminar screws), the C-2 segments were disarticulated, radiographed in anteroposterior, lateral, and axial planes, and meticulously inspected by another spine surgeon to determine the nature and presence of any defects.

Results

A total of 64 screws were evaluated in this study. Pars screws exhibited 2 critical defects (1 in the foramen transversarium and 1 in the C2–3 facet) and an insignificant dorsal cortex breech, for an overall accuracy rate of 81.3%. Pedicle screws demonstrated only 1 insignificant violation (inferior facet/medial cortex intrusion of 1 mm) with an accuracy rate of 93.8%, and intralaminar screws demonstrated 3 insignificant violations (2 in the ventral canal, 1 in the caudad lamina breech) for an accuracy rate of 90.6%. Pars screws had significantly more critical violations than intralaminar screws (p = 0.041).

Conclusions

Instrumentation of the C-2 vertebrae using the freehand technique for insertion of pedicle and intralaminar screws showed a high success rate with no critical violations. Pars screw insertion was not as reliable, with 2 critical violations from a total of 16 placements. The freehand technique appears to be a safe and reliable method for insertion of C-2 pedicle and intralaminar screws.

Restricted access

Myles Luszczyk, Justin S. Smith, Jeffrey S. Fischgrund, Steven C. Ludwig, Rick C. Sasso, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Alexander R. Vaccaro

Object

Although smoking has been shown to negatively affect fusion rates in patients undergoing multilevel fusions of the cervical and lumbar spine, the effect of smoking on fusion rates in patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with allograft and plate fixation has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The objective of the present study was to address the effect of smoking on fusion rates in patients undergoing a 1-level ACDF with allograft and a locked anterior cervical plate.

Methods

This study is composed of patients from the control groups of 5 separate studies evaluating the use of an anterior cervical disc replacement to treat cervical radiculopathy. For each of the 5 studies the control group consisted of patients who underwent a 1-level ACDF with allograft and a locked cervical plate. The authors of the present study reviewed data obtained in a total of 573 patients; 156 patients were smokers and 417 were nonsmokers. A minimum follow-up period of 24 months was required for inclusion in this study. Fusion status was assessed by independent observers using lateral, neutral, and flexion/extension radiographs.

Results

An overall fusion rate of 91.4% was achieved in all 573 patients. A solid fusion was shown in 382 patients (91.6%) who were nonsmokers. Among patients who were smokers, 142 (91.0%) had radiographic evidence of a solid fusion. A 2-tailed Fisher exact test revealed a p value of 0.867, indicating no difference in the union rates between smokers and nonsmokers.

Conclusions

The authors found no statistically significant difference in fusion status between smokers and nonsmokers who underwent a single-level ACDF with allograft and a locked anterior cervical plate. Although the authors do not promote tobacco use, it appears that the use of allograft with a locked cervical plate in single-level ACDF among smokers produces similar fusion rates as it does in their nonsmoking counterparts.

Full access

Jeffrey D. Coe, Alexander R. Vaccaro, Andrew T. Dailey, Rick C. Sasso, Steven C. Ludwig, James S. Harrop, Joseph R. Dettori, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Sanford E. Emery and Michael G. Fehlings

Full access

Michael G. Fehlings, Justin S. Smith, Branko Kopjar, Paul M. Arnold, S. Tim Yoon, Alexander R. Vaccaro, Darrel S. Brodke, Michael E. Janssen, Jens R. Chapman, Rick C. Sasso, Eric J. Woodard, Robert J. Banco, Eric M. Massicotte, Mark B. Dekutoski, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Christopher M. Bono and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

Rates of complications associated with the surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are not clear. Appreciating these risks is important for patient counseling and quality improvement. The authors sought to assess the rates of and risk factors associated with perioperative and delayed complications associated with the surgical treatment of CSM.

Methods

Data from the AOSpine North America Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Study, a prospective, multicenter study, were analyzed. Outcomes data, including adverse events, were collected in a standardized manner and externally monitored. Rates of perioperative complications (within 30 days of surgery) and delayed complications (31 days to 2 years following surgery) were tabulated and stratified based on clinical factors.

Results

The study enrolled 302 patients (mean age 57 years, range 29–86) years. Of 332 reported adverse events, 73 were classified as perioperative complications (25 major and 48 minor) in 47 patients (overall perioperative complication rate of 15.6%). The most common perioperative complications included minor cardiopulmonary events (3.0%), dysphagia (3.0%), and superficial wound infection (2.3%). Perioperative worsening of myelopathy was reported in 4 patients (1.3%). Based on 275 patients who completed 2 years of follow-up, there were 14 delayed complications (8 minor, 6 major) in 12 patients, for an overall delayed complication rate of 4.4%. Of patients treated with anterior-only (n = 176), posterior-only (n = 107), and combined anterior-posterior (n = 19) procedures, 11%, 19%, and 37%, respectively, had 1 or more perioperative complications. Compared with anterior-only approaches, posterior-only approaches had a higher rate of wound infection (0.6% vs 4.7%, p = 0.030). Dysphagia was more common with combined anterior-posterior procedures (21.1%) compared with anterior-only procedures (2.3%) or posterior-only procedures (0.9%) (p < 0.001). The incidence of C-5 radiculopathy was not associated with the surgical approach (p = 0.8). The occurrence of perioperative complications was associated with increased age (p = 0.006), combined anterior-posterior procedures (p = 0.016), increased operative time (p = 0.009), and increased operative blood loss (p = 0.005), but it was not associated with comorbidity score, body mass index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, smoking status, anterior-only versus posterior-only approach, or specific procedures. Multivariate analysis of factors associated with minor or major complications identified age (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.002–1.057, p = 0.035) and operative time (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.002–1.008, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis of factors associated with major complications identified age (OR 1.054, 95% CI 1.015–1.094, p = 0.006) and combined anterior-posterior procedures (OR 5.297, 95% CI 1.626–17.256, p = 0.006).

Conclusions

For the surgical treatment of CSM, the vast majority of complications were treatable and without long-term impact. Multivariate factors associated with an increased risk of complications include greater age, increased operative time, and use of combined anterior-posterior procedures.