Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Richard Simpson x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Albert J. Fenoy and Richard K. Simpson Jr.

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is increasingly prominent in the treatment of various disorders refractory to medication. Despite the procedure's efficacy, the community at large continues to be hesitant about presumed associated risks. The main object of this study was to assess the incidence of various surgical complications occurring both during and after DBS device implantation in a large population of patients with movement disorders in an effort to better quantify patient risk, define management plans, and develop methods for risk avoidance. A second aim was to corroborate the low procedural complication risk of DBS reported by others, which in light of the procedure's efficacy is needed to promote its widespread acceptance.

Methods

All patients who had undergone new DBS device implantation surgery between 2002 and 2010 by a single surgeon were entered into a database after being verified by cross-referencing manufacturer implantation records. All surgical records and charts were reviewed to identify intraoperative, perioperative, and long-term surgical complications, including any characteristics predictive of an adverse event.

Results

Seven hundred twenty-eight patients received 1333 new DBS electrodes and 1218 new internal pulse generators (IPGs) in a total of 1356 stereotactic procedures for the treatment of movement disorders. Seventy-eight percent of the patients had staged lead and IPG implantations. Of the 728 patients, 452 suffered from medically refractory Parkinson disease; in the other patients, essential tremor (144), dystonia (64), mixed disease (30), and other hyperkinetic movement disorders (38) were diagnosed. Severe intraoperative adverse events included vasovagal response in 6 patients (0.8%), hypotension in 2 (0.3%), and seizure in 2 (0.3%). Postoperative imaging confirmed asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 4 patients (0.5%), asymptomatic intraventricular hemorrhage in 25 (3.4%), symptomatic ICH in 8 (1.1%), and ischemic infarction in 3 (0.4%), associated with hemiparesis and/or decreased consciousness in 13 (1.7%). Long-term complications of DBS device implantation not requiring additional surgery included hardware discomfort in 8 patients (1.1%) and loss of desired effect in 10 (1.4%). Hardware-related complications requiring surgical revision included wound infections in 13 patients (1.7%), lead malposition and/or migration in 13 (1.7%), component fracture in 10 (1.4%), component malfunction in 4 (0.5%), and loss of effect in 19 (2.6%).

Conclusions

The authors confirmed that the overall risk of both procedure- and hardware-related adverse events is acceptably low. They offer advice on how to avoid the most common complications.

Restricted access

Albert J. Fenoy and Richard K. Simpson Jr.

Object

Wound complications are uncommon following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. However, certain key technical steps can be performed in each procedure to minimize this still troublesome risk. The authors reviewed the incidence and management of all hardware-related wound dehiscences and infections in a large patient series.

Methods

All patients undergoing new DBS hardware implantation surgery between 2002 and 2010 by a single surgeon (R.K.S.) were entered into a database after undergoing verification by cross-referencing manufacturer implantation records. All hardware-related complications such as wound dehiscence, erosions, and/or infections were identified, and wound location, time of incidence, and mechanism were categorized. Charts were reviewed to evaluate the success of conservative treatment versus partial or total hardware removal.

Results

Seven hundred twenty-eight patients received 1333 new DBS leads and 1218 new implantable pulse generators (IPGs) in a total of 1356 stereotactic procedures for movement disorders. Seventy-eight percent of patients underwent staged lead and IPG implantations. Sixteen patients presented with atraumatic device-related infection and/or dehiscence within 12 months from original implantation; 9 of these patients (1.24%) required additional surgery after antibiotic failure. All 8 patients presenting with cranial wound complications were treated initially by debridement in an attempt to salvage the leads; debridement followed by intravenous antibiotics was only successful in 2 patients presenting with dehiscence alone. One of 2 lead-only removals was successful in infections originating in the cranium; the only IPG-originating infection was treated by partial hardware removal and intravenous antibiotics. Two of 637 IPG replacements resulted in infections within 12 months after revision, requiring either partial or total hardware removal, while 1 dehiscence in this group was treated by debridement alone.

Conclusions

In a large series of new DBS hardware implantations, the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence and/or infections requiring further surgery was 1.24%. Standard practice for all implantations was a short procedural duration, copious povidone-iodine irrigation, and postoperative antibiotic administration. Partial hardware removal should be initially attempted for infection. Debridement alone is successful in treating dehiscence without infection.

Restricted access

Richard K. Simpson Jr. and Warren D. Parker

✓ A case of an unusual distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm is presented. The saccular aneurysm arose from a fetal PCA distal to the posterior temporal branch of the P3 segment. The aneurysm was treated by placing a clip on the PCA distal to the anterior temporal branch of the P2 segment. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was also placed. The patient's postoperative recovery was unremarkable and without residual neurological deficit. The highly unusual location of this aneurysm is discussed and the neurosurgical literature is reviewed in detail.

Restricted access

Richard K. Simpson Jr., Richard L. Harper and R. Nick Bryan

✓ A patient with a giant traumatic aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery presented with recurrent massive epistaxis 30 years after a head injury. During an episode of acute hemorrhage, this patient was effectively treated with occlusion of the internal carotid artery circulation by a detachable inflatable balloon.

Restricted access

Benjamin H. Venger, Richard K. Simpson and Raj K. Narayan

✓ Associated injuries to the neck, chest, or abdomen are found in approximately one-quarter of all civilians with penetrating spinal cord or cauda equina injuries. While the value of and indications for general surgical exploration and repair of these injuries are fairly self-evident, the value of neurosurgical intervention in terms of neurological outcome and infection prophylaxis remains the subject of debate. To study this issue, 160 civilian patients with penetrating spinal injuries and neurological deficits were retrospectively reviewed. Associated injuries of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, or bowel were seen in 107 individuals (67%); 33 (31%) of these patients had abdominal injuries, 25 (23%) had neck injuries, 23 (21%) had thoracic injuries, and 26 (24%) had injuries occurring at multiple sites. Of these 107 patients, 67 (63%) had complete neurological injuries and the remaining 40 (37%) demonstrated incomplete deficits. All 107 patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of their visceral injuries; in 19 of them a neurosurgical procedure was also performed for decompression of the neural elements and/or debridement of the wound. Regardless of the presence of associated visceral injuries, the mechanism of injury, and the extent of the neurological deficit, no statistically significant difference in neurological outcome was found in patients with or without neurosurgical intervention. Complications associated with neurological injury were reported in 17 (11%) of the total group of 160 patients. Four (21%) of the 19 patients who had neurosurgical intervention suffered a related complication, compared to only six (7%) of the 88 patients who were managed conservatively (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of a retrospective review, the results of this study do not clearly support the value of routine neurosurgical intervention as an adjunct to general surgical repair in cases of spinal injury associated with penetrating visceral trauma.

Full access

Robert A. Scranton, Ioannis M. Skaribas and Richard K. Simpson Jr.

The authors describe a case of delayed spastic quadriparesis caused by a peri-electrode mass following the implantation of a minimally invasive percutaneous spinal cord stimulator (SCS). Prior reports with paddle-type electrodes are reviewed, and a detailed histological and pathophysiological comparison with the present case is made.

The patient developed tolerance to a cervical percutaneous SCS 4 months after implantation, followed by the onset of spastic quadriparesis 9 months after implantation. The stimulator was removed, and contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an enhancing epidural mass where the system had been placed, with severe spinal cord compression. Decompression was carried out, and the patient experienced neurological improvement. Pathological examination revealed fibrotic tissue with granulomatous and multinucleated giant cell reactions. No evidence of infection or hemorrhage was found. Professionals treating patients with SCSs or contemplating their insertion should be aware of this delayed complication and associated risk factors.

Restricted access

Richard G. Ryali, Michael K. Peacock and Donald A. Simpson

✓ The clinical value of analyzing various fluids and exudates for β2-transferrin (β2-Tfn) to detect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage following head trauma was reviewed in a series of 11 cases. Qualitative detection of β2-Tfn was performed by agarose gel electrophoresis of tears, ear and nose exudates, cerebral cyst fluid, and wound discharge fluid in different cases. In each instance the presence of β2-Tfn in the analyzed fluid supported the diagnosis of a CSF leak. Equally, the demonstration of the absence of β2-Tfn in the fluid excluded the diagnosis of such a leak. Neither false-positive nor false-negative results were found, as indicated by separate radiological investigations and/or subsequent clinical assessment of patients. The detection of β2-Tfn in suspect fluids thus provides a highly sensitive and selective, rapid, and noninvasive test for the detection of CSF leakage in cases of head trauma.

Restricted access

Christopher Kenney, Richard Simpson, Christine Hunter, William Ondo, Michael Almaguer, Anthony Davidson and Joseph Jankovic

Object

The object of this study was to assess the long-term safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a large population of patients with a variety of movement disorders.

Methods

All patients treated with DBS at the authors' center between 1995 and 2005 were assessed for intraoperative, perioperative, and long-term adverse events (AEs).

A total of 319 patients underwent DBS device implantation. Of these 319, 182 suffered from medically refractory Parkinson disease; the other patients had essential tremor (112 patients), dystonia (19 patients), and other hyperkinetic movement disorders (six patients). Intraoperative AEs were rare and included vasovagal response in eight patients (2.5%), syncope in four (1.2%), severe cough in three (0.9%), transient ischemic attack in one (0.3%), arrhythmia in one (0.3%), and confusion in one (0.3%). Perioperative AEs included headache in 48 patients (15.0%), confusion in 16 (5.0%), and hallucinations in nine (2.8%). Serious intraoperative/perioperative AEs included isolated seizure in four patients (1.2%), intracerebral hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), intraventricular hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), and a large subdural hematoma in one patient (0.3%). Persistent long-term complications of DBS surgery included dysarthria (4.0%), worsening gait (3.8%), cognitive dysfunction (4.0%), and infection (4.4%). Revisions were completed in 25 patients (7.8%) for the following reasons: loss of effect, lack of efficacy, infection, lead fracture, and lead migration. Hardware-related complications included 12 lead fractuxres and 10 lead migrations.

Conclusions

The authors conclude that in their 10-year experience, DBS has proven to be safe for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders.

Restricted access

Daniel P. Robertson, Richard K. Simpson, James E. Rose and Jim S. Garza

✓ Sympathetic nerve disorders of the upper extremities can be treated by neurosurgeons using upper thoracic sympathectomy via a posterior approach. Descriptions have been published of alternative endoscopic procedures involving thermocoagulation, laser coagulation, or nonvideo-assisted ganglionectomy using equipment not widely available, with low morbidity and excellent results. The authors describe the use of an endoscopic approach to the thoracic sympathetic ganglia with systems designed for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thoracic ganglionectomy is reported in 22 patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis and eight patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The patients underwent double-lumen endotracheal intubation, after which 11- and 5.5-mm trocars were introduced into the chest cavity. Pneumothorax was produced with CO2 insufflation. Fiberoptic closed-circuit television was used to visualize the structures to be dissected. The parietal pleura over the heads of the first and second ribs was excised using 5-mm blunt and sharp insulated coagulating microscissors. The stellate and upper thoracic ganglia were clearly identified and dissected. The T-2 and T-3 ganglia were grasped with forceps and excised. A No. 16 French chest tube was introduced through a trocar, placed under water seal after the lungs were reinflated, and removed in the recovery room. The average hospital stay was 15.4 hours. There were no intraoperative complications. The average operating time was 30 minutes per side. Five patients had mild pleuritic pain which resolved within 2 weeks after surgery. Six (75%) of the eight patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy had complete or partial relief of their symptoms (average follow-up period 5 months), and all patients had complete relief of hyperhidrosis (average follow-up period 8 months). Endoscopic ganglionectomy requires readily available and easily used instrumentation and provides a well-tolerated, cost-effective alternative to posterior thoracic sympathectomy for primary palmar hyperhidrosis and reflex sympathetic dystrophy.