✓ Basilar artery (BA) injury has been reported in a number of cases as a major complication of third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus. This report describes the deployment of a pulsed-wave microvascular Doppler probe through the endoscope to locate the BA complex and subsequently to select a safe zone for perforation of the third ventricular floor. This procedure is quick and easily learned, and it is hoped that it can decrease the risk of vascular injury during third ventriculostomy.
Richard H. Schmidt
Amin Amini and Richard H. Schmidt
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has gained popularity and has become the treatment of choice for certain pediatric and adult hydrocephalic conditions. The authors report their experience with 36 adult patients and evaluate the long-term outcome and safety of ETV. They discuss several improvements to the surgical techniques that they have developed based on their experience, including the use of intraoperative Doppler imaging before fenestration to trace the location of vessels underlying the floor of the third ventricle. They also report the use of a Rickham reservoir and endoventricular stent in selected cases and discuss the indications for their use. In cases of obstructive hydrocephalus due to congenital or acquired aqueductal stenosis in adults, the success rate of ETV in avoidance of shunt placement is 72%. Twenty-two percent of the patients in this series in whom ETV was initially successful later experienced closure of the fenestration and recurrent symptoms at a mean interval of 3.75 years. Thus, in patients who undergo this treatment, long-term periodic follow-up review should be performed.
Richard H. Schmidt and M. Sean Grady
✓ Disturbances in memory, concentration, and problem solving are common after even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Because these functions are mediated in part by forebrain cholinergic and catecholaminergic innervation, in this study the authors sought to determine if experimental concussive injury produces detectable morphological damage to these systems.
Fluid-percussion head injury, sufficient to cause a 13- to 14-minute loss of righting reflex, was produced in rats that had been anesthetized with halothane. Injury was delivered either at midline or 2 mm off midline and compared with appropriate sham-injured controls. After 11 to 15 days, the rat brains were stained in serial sections for choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase, acetylcholinesterase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase. Cell counts were determined for the entire population of ventrobasal forebrain cholinergic cells. Midline injury produced a bilateral loss of cholinergic neurons averaging 36% in area Ch1 (medial septal nucleus), 45% in Ch2 (nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca), and 41% in Ch4 (nucleus basalis of Meynart), (p ≤ 0.05). Lateralized injury resulted in cholinergic neuron loss of similar magnitude ipsilaterally (p ≤ 0.05), but a smaller contralateral loss of between 11% and 28%. No loss of neurons was detected in the pontomesencephalic cholinergic groups Ch5 and Ch6. There was no visible effect of head injury on forebrain dopamine or noradrenergic innervation.
A significant and apparently selective loss of ventrobasal forebrain cholinergic neurons following brief concussive injury in rats is demonstrated in this study. This type of injury is known to produce significant disturbance in cognitive tasks linked to neocortical and hippocampal cholinergic function. It remains to be determined how this neuron loss occurs, whether it can be prevented with neuroprotective agents, how it affects innervation in target tissues, and whether it occurs in human victims of traumatic brain injury.
Paul Klimo Jr. and Richard H. Schmidt
✓The elucidation of predictive factors of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major area of both clinical and basic science research. It is becoming clear that many factors contribute to this phenomenon. The most consistent predictor of vasospasm has been the amount of SAH seen on the postictal computed tomography scan. Over the last 30 years, it has become clear that the greater the amount of blood within the basal cisterns, the greater the risk of vasospasm. To evaluate this risk, various grading schemes have been proposed, from simple to elaborate, the most widely known being the Fisher scale. Most recently, volumetric quantification and clearance models have provided the most detailed analysis. Intraventricular hemorrhage, although not supported as strongly as cisternal SAH, has also been shown to be a risk factor for vasospasm.
Richard K. Cavender and John H. Schmidt III
✓ A unique case of monozygotic triplets, each of whom exhibits variable degrees of tonsillar ectopia, is reported. Patient X presented with a Chiari I malformation and associated syringomyelia; examination of patients Y and Z showed 4 mm and 2.5 mm of tonsillar ectopia, respectively. No such case has been reported in the literature. The discussion defines the current magnetic resonance criteria for diagnosis of hindbrain malformations and addresses the question of whether these disorders represent a spectrum or separate disease entities, with specific emphasis on genetic predisposition. Due to the 100% concordance in this case the presence of a common hereditary factor in the etiology of these malformations is highly suggested.
Case report and classification scheme
Paul Klimo Jr., Ganesh Rao, Richard H. Schmidt and Meic H. Schmidt
Nerve sheath tumors that involve the sacrum are rare. Delayed presentation is common because of their slow-growing nature, the permissive surrounding anatomical environment, and nonspecific symptoms. Consequently, these tumors are usually of considerable size at the time of diagnosis.
The authors discuss a case of a sacral nerve sheath tumor. They also propose a classification scheme for these tumors based on their location with respect to the sacrum into three types (Types I–III). Type I tumors are confined to the sacrum; Type II originate within the sacrum but then locally metastasize through the anterior and posterior sacral walls into the presacral and subcutaneous spaces, respectively; and Type III are located primarily in the presacral/retroperitoneal area. The overwhelming majority of sacral nerve sheath tumors are schwannomas. Neurofibromas and malignant nerve sheath tumors are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their histological features, the goal of treatment is complete excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be used in patients in whom resection was subtotal. Approaches to the sacrum can generally be classified as anterior or posterior. Type I tumors may be resected via a posterior approach alone, Type III may require an anterior approach, and Type II tumors usually require combined anterior–posterior surgery.
Sarah T. Garber, Walavan Sivakumar and Richard H. Schmidt
Dabigatran etexilate is an oral anticoagulant that acts as a direct, competitive thrombin inhibitor. Large randomized clinical trials have shown higher doses of dabigatran (150 mg taken twice daily) to be superior to warfarin in terms of stroke and systemic embolism rates in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. As a result, in 2010 the US FDA approved the use of dabigatran for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is especially attractive in the outpatient setting because patients do not require routine monitoring with prothrombin times or international normalized ratios. To date, no effective reversal agent for dabigatran in the event of catastrophic hemorrhage has been identified. The authors report a case of an elderly patient, being treated with dabigatran for atrial fibrillation, who presented with a rapidly expanding intracranial hemorrhage after a ground-level fall. This case highlights an impending neurosurgical quandary of complications secondary to this new anticoagulation agent and suggests potential options for management.
Brian T. Ragel, Samuel R. Browd and Richard H. Schmidt
Infection represents the most common serious complication of shunt surgery, and typically its incidence ranges between 5 and 15%, despite the use of systemic antibiotic agents. Because systemic antibiotic medications generally penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) poorly, the authors investigated, in a controlled study, whether the addition of intraventricular antibiotic treatment decreases the incidence of perioperative infection in adult patients.
Data pertaining to all CSF shunt procedures conducted at the authors’ institution during an 11-year period were reviewed. Perioperative infection was defined as culture-positive CSF and the clinical presence of infection-related symptoms occurring within 90 days of surgery. All patients underwent intraoperative systemic antistaphylococcal antibiotic therapy. Before May 16, 1999, the senior author (R.H.S.) also administered 4 mg of gentamicin intraventricularly at surgery (Group I); thereafter, 10 mg of vancomycin was additionally administered (Group II). Other neurosurgeons at this institution did not use intraventricular antibiotic therapy, and their patients served as additional controls in identical time periods (Groups III and IV).
A total of 802 shunt procedures were performed in 534 patients. Control infection rates were 5.4% (eight of 147) in Group I; 6.2% (nine of 145) in Group III; and 6.7% (18 of 267) in Group IV. With the combination of systemic antibiotic and intraventricular gentamicin and vancomycin (Group II), the infection rate fell significantly to 0.4% (one of 243). No complications were noted in association with intraventricular antibiotic administration.
The combination of intraventricular gentamicin and vancomycin with systemic antibiotic therapy significantly decreased the incidence of perioperative shunt infection. It is presumed that intraventricular antibiotic therapy extends prophylactic antibiotic coverage into the CSF and prevents bacterial seeding.
Richard H. Schmidt, M. Sean Grady, Wendy Cohen, Sanford Wright and H. Richard Winn
✓ The case is presented of a young woman with acute cauda equina syndrome from a ruptured aneurysm in the sacral canal. The lesion was associated with pathological enlargement of the lateral sacral arteries bilaterally, which presumably occurred to provide cross-pelvic collateral flow in response to the diversion of the right internal iliac artery for renal transplantation. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage. The radiographic features of this lesion are described. In addition to angiography and partial embolization of the vascular supply, contrast-enhanced high-resolution computerized tomography was essential in the diagnosis and treatment of this unique aneurysm.