Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for

  • Author or Editor: Richard F. Keep x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Guohua Xi, Richard F. Keep, and Julian T. Hoff

Object. The mechanisms of brain edema formation following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not well understood. In previous studies, no significant edema formation has been found 24 hours after infusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) into the brain of a rat or pig; however, there is evidence that hemoglobin can be neurotoxic. In this study, the authors reexamined the role of RBCs and hemoglobin in edema formation after ICH.

Methods. The experiments involved infusion of whole blood, packed RBCs, lysed RBCs, rat hemoglobin, or thrombin into the right basal ganglia of Sprague—Dawley rats. The animals were killed at different time points and brain water and ion contents were measured. The results showed that lysed autologous erythrocytes, but not packed erythrocytes, produced marked brain edema 24 hours after infusion and that this edema formation could be mimicked by hemoglobin infusion. Although infusion of packed RBCs did not produce dramatic brain edema during the first 2 days, it did induce a marked increase in brain water content 3 days postinfusion. Edema formation following thrombin infusion peaked at 24 to 48 hours. This is earlier than the peak in edema formation that follows ICH, suggesting that there is a delayed, nonthrombin-mediated, edemogenic component of ICH.

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that RBCs play a potentially important role in delayed edema development after ICH and that RBC lysis and hemoglobin toxicity may be useful targets for therapeutic intervention.

Restricted access

Oren Sagher, Dah-Luen Huang, and Richard F. Keep

Object. The authors previously showed that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) increases cerebral blood flow in rats, indicating that this technique may be useful in the treatment of focal cerebral ischemia. In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of SCS in the setting of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated.

Methods. The authors induced permanent, focal cerebral ischemia by using either suture-induced occlusion or direct division of the MCA in Sprague—Dawley rats. Electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord was performed during cerebral ischemia. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using both laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and quantitative radiotracer analysis. Stroke volumes were analyzed after 6 hours of ischemia.

Spinal cord stimulation resulted in a 52.7 ± 13.3% increase in LDF values (nine animals). Following MCAO, LDF values decreased by 64.1 ± 3.6% from baseline values (10 animals). Spinal cord stimulation subsequently increased LDF values to 30.9 ± 13.5% below original baseline values. These findings were corroborated using radiotracer studies. Spinal cord stimulation in the setting of transcranial MCAO significantly reduced stroke volumes as well (from 203 ± 33 mm3 [control] to 32 ± 8 mm3 [MCAO plus SCS], seven animals in each group, p < 0.001). Similarly, after suture-induced MCAO, SCS reduced stroke volumes (from 307 ± 29 mm3 [control] to 78 ± 22 mm3 [MCAO plus SCS], 10 animals in each group, p < 0.001).

Conclusions. A strategy of performing SCS for the prevention of critical ischemia is feasible and may have the potential for the treatment and prevention of stroke.

Full access

Julian T. Hoff, Richard F. Keep, and Guohua Xi

Restricted access

Ya Hua, Guohua Xi, Richard F. Keep, and Julian T. Hoff

Object. Brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) appears to be partly related to erythrocyte lysis and hemoglobin release. Erythrocyte lysis may be mediated by the complement cascade, which then triggers parenchymal injury. In this study the authors examine whether the complement cascade is activated after ICH and whether inhibition of complement attenuates brain edema around the hematoma.

Methods. This study was divided into three parts. In the first part, 100 µl of autologous blood was infused into the rats' right basal ganglia, and the animals were killed at 24 and 72 hours after intracerebral infusion. Their brains were tested for complement factors C9, C3d, and clusterin (a naturally occurring complement inhibitor) by using immunohistochemical analysis. In the second part of the study, the rats were killed at 24 or 72 hours after injection of 100 µl of blood. The C9 and clusterin proteins were quantitated using Western blot analysis. In the third part, the rats received either 100 µl of blood or 100 µl of blood plus 10 µg of N-acetylheparin (a complement activation inhibitor). Then they were killed 24 or 72 hours later for measurement of brain water and ion contents. It was demonstrated on Western blot analysis that there had been a sixfold increase in C9 around the hematoma 24 hours after the infusion of 100 µl of autologous blood. Marked perihematomal C9 immunoreactivity was detected at 72 hours. Clusterin also increased after ICH and was expressed in neurons 72 hours later. The addition of N-acetylheparin significantly reduced brain edema formation in the ipsilateral basal ganglia at 24 hours (78.5 ± 0.5% compared with 81.6 ± 0.8% in control animals, p < 0.001) and at 72 hours (80.9 ± 2.2% compared with 83.6 ± 0.9% in control animals, p < 0.05) after ICH.

Conclusions. It was found that ICH causes complement activation in the brain. Activation of complement and the formation of membrane attack complex contributes to brain edema formation after ICH. Blocking the complement cascade could be an important step in the therapy for ICH.

Restricted access

Feng-Ping Huang, Guohua Xi, Richard F. Keep, Ya Hua, Andrei Nemoianu, and Julian T. Hoff

Object. The mechanisms involved in brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have not been fully elucidated. The authors have found that red blood cell lysis plays an important role in edema development after ICH. In the present study, they sought to determine whether degradation products of hemoglobin cause brain edema.

Methods. Hemoglobin, hemin, bilirubin, or FeCl2 were infused with stereotactic guidance into the right basal ganglia of Sprague—Dawley rats. The animals were killed 24 hours later to determine brain water and ion contents. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were applied for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) measurement. The effects of an HO inhibitor, tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), and the iron chelator deferoxamine, on hemoglobin-induced brain edema were also examined.

Intracerebral infusion of hemoglobin, hemin, bilirubin, or FeCl2 caused an increase in brain water content at 24 hours. The HO-1 was upregulated after hemoglobin infusion and HO inhibition by SnPP-attenuated hemoglobin-induced edema. Brain edema induced by hemoglobin was also attenuated by the intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg/kg deferoxamine.

Conclusions. Hemoglobin causes brain edema, at least in part, through its degradation products. Limiting hemoglobin degradation coupled with the use of iron chelators may be a novel therapeutic approach to limit brain edema after ICH.

Restricted access

Takehiro Nakamura, Richard F. Keep, Ya Hua, Timothy Schallert, Julian T. Hoff, and Guohua Xi

Object. Previous studies undertaken by the authors have indicated that iron accumulation and oxidative stress in the brain contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study the authors investigate whether deferoxamine, an iron chelator, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury.

Methods. Male Sprague—Dawley rats each received an infusion of 100 µl of autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia and were killed 1, 3, or 7 days later. Iron distribution was examined histochemically (enhanced Perls reaction). The effects of deferoxamine on ICH-induced brain injury were examined by measuring brain edema and neurological deficits. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to investigate 8-hydroxyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and Western blot analysis was performed to measure the amount of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor—1 (APE/Ref-1), a repair mechanism for DNA oxidative damage.

Iron accumulation was observed in the perihematomal zone from 1 day after ICH. Deferoxamine attenuated brain edema, neurological deficits, and ICH-induced changes in 8-OHdG and APE/Ref-1.

Conclusions. Deferoxamine and other iron chelators may be potential therapeutic agents for ICH. They may act by reducing the oxidative stress caused by the release of iron from the hematoma.

Full access

Takehiro Nakamura, Richard F. Keep, Ya Hua, Timothy Schallert, Julian T. Hoff, and Guohua Xi

Object

In the authors' previous studies they found that brain iron accumulation and oxidative stress contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study they investigated whether deferoxamine, an iron chelator, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury.

Methods

Male Sprague–Dawley rats received an infusion of 100 μl of autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia and were killed 1, 3, or 7 days thereafter. Iron distribution was examined histochemically (enhanced Perl reaction). The effects of deferoxamine on ICH-induced brain injury were examined by measuring brain edema and neurological deficits. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor–1 (APE/Ref-1), a repair mechanism for DNA oxidative damage, was quantitated by Western blot analysis.

Iron accumulation was observed in the perihematoma zone beginning 1 day after ICH. Deferoxamine attenuated brain edema, neurological deficits, and ICH-induced changes in APE/Ref-1.

Conclusions

Deferoxamine and other iron chelators may be potential therapeutic agents for treating ICH. They may act by reducing the oxidative stress caused by the release of iron from the hematoma.

Restricted access

Gang Wu, Xuhui Bao, Guohua Xi, Richard F. Keep, B. Gregory Thompson, and Ya Hua

Object

Hypertension is the main cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs), but the effects of hypertension on ICH-induced brain injury have not been well studied. In this study, the authors examined ICH-induced brain injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Methods

This 2-part study was performed in 12-week-old male SHRs and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. First, the rats received an intracaudate injection of 0.3 U collagenase, and hematoma sizes were determined at 24 hours. Second, rats were injected with 100 μl autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Brain edema, neuronal death, ferritin expression, microglia activation, and neurological deficits were examined.

Results

Hematoma sizes were the same in SHR and WKY rats 24 hours after collagenase injection. The SHRs had greater neuronal death and neurological deficits after blood injection. Intracerebral hemorrhage also resulted in higher brain ferritin levels and stronger activation of microglia in SHRs. However, perihematomal brain edema was the same in the SHRs and WKY rats.

Conclusions

Moderate chronic hypertension resulted in more severe ICH-induced neuronal death and neurological deficits, but did not exaggerate hematoma enlargement and perihematomal brain edema in the rat ICH models.

Restricted access

Gary P. Colon, Kevin R. Lee, Richard F. Keep, Thomas L. Chenevert, A. Lorris Betz, and Julian T. Hoff

✓ Previous work from this laboratory has shown that injection of thrombin into rat basal ganglia causes brain edema. This study investigates the effect on rat brain of thrombin-soaked gelatin sponge (used for intraoperative hemostasis in clinical situations) at a concentration similar to that used in humans. Three models were developed to evaluate this effect. In the first model, a gelatin sponge soaked with vehicle or thrombin (100 U/cm3) was placed on the intact pia of the right frontal lobe in rats without cortical lesions. In the second model, frontal cortex was excised (3 mm3) and the exposed brain was cauterized with electrocoagulation. Gelatin sponge was soaked with vehicle or thrombin (1000, 100, 10, or 1 U/cm3) and placed in the lesion site. In the third model, hirudin, a specific thrombin antagonist, was added to the thrombin-soaked gelatin sponge and placed in a similar cortical lesion to determine if the observed effects were specific to thrombin. The dose-response range for thrombin was determined qualitatively by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitatively by brain edema formation 24 hours after exposure. We found no edema in the cortically intact rats. The rats given cortical lesions developed significant edema when subjected to 1000, 100, and 10 U/cm3 thrombin as seen on MR imaging and at 100 and 10 U/cm3 thrombin as revealed by wet/dry weight and ion studies of brain tissue. Topical hirudin prevented thrombin-induced edema. It is concluded that thrombin-soaked gelatin sponges cause or enhance significant brain edema in rats at concentrations typically used for human neurosurgery.

Restricted access

Tetsuya Masada, Ya Hua, Guohua Xi, Guo-Yuan Yang, Julian T. Hoff, and Richard F. Keep

Object. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) attenuates the inflammatory reaction and brain injury that follows focal cerebral ischemia. Recently, an inflammatory reaction after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was identified. In this study the authors examine the hypothesis that overexpression of IL-1ra reduces brain injury (specifically edema formation) after ICH.

Methods. Adenoviruses expressing IL-1ra (Ad.RSVIL-1ra) or LacZ, a control protein (Ad.RSVlacZ), or saline were injected into the left lateral cerebral ventricle in rats. On the 5th day after virus injection, 100 µl of autologous blood or 5 U thrombin was infused into the right basal ganglia. Rats with ICH were killed 24 or 72 hours later for measurement of brain water and ion content. Thrombin-treated rats were killed 24 hours later for edema measurements and an assessment of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, as well as histological evaluation. Compared with saline-treated and Ad.RSVlacZ—transduced controls, Ad.RSVIL-1ra-transduced rats had significantly attenuated edema in the ipsilateral basal ganglia 3 days after ICH (81.5 ± 0.3% compared with 83.4 ± 0.4% and 83.3 ± 0.5% in control animals). Thrombin-induced brain edema was also reduced in Ad.RSVIL-1ra—treated rats (81.3 ± 0.4% compared with 83.2 ± 0.4% and 82.5 ± 0.4% in control rats). The reduction in thrombin-induced edema was associated with a reduction in PMNL infiltration into the basal ganglia, as assessed by MPO assay (49% reduction) and histological examination.

Conclusions. Overexpression of IL-1ra by using an adenovirus vector attenuated brain edema formation and thrombin-induced intracerebral inflammation following ICH. The reduction in ICH-induced edema with IL-1ra may result from reduction of thrombin-induced brain inflammation.