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Kim J. Burchiel

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Ashish H. Shah, Michael E. Ivan and Ricardo J. Komotar

Meningiomas that partially or completely occlude the superior sagittal sinus may create a pseudotumor-like syndrome in certain patients. These patients may have impaired CSF absorption as a result of higher proximal venous pressure. Higher pressures after resection may encumber adequate wound healing and worsen symptoms. Here, the authors present a small series of patients with meningiomas involving the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus, with documented high intracranial pressure prior to surgery. This paper aims to address the proposed etiology of high intracranial pressure in these patients and its associated complications, including CSF leak, wound dehiscence, pressure-related headaches, and visual complaints. In this paper, the authors propose a management plan to avoid wound complications and pseudotumor-related complications. When considering surgical intervention for patients with compromise of the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus, careful attention must be paid to addressing potentially elevated intracranial pressure perioperatively.

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Giuseppe Lanzino

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Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar and E. Sander Connolly

Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disorder that results in severe morbidity and death. There is much controversy surrounding the optimal treatment for adult patients with the disorder. There have been no randomized trials to assess the efficacy of any single surgical treatment, and existing case series suffer from inadequate power, selection bias, and inherent differences in patient characteristics. In this article the authors review the literature concerning the optimal surgical treatment of adult patients with moyamoya disease.

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J. Bradley Elder and E. Antonio Chiocca

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Ricardo J. Komotar, Daniel M. S. Raper, Robert M. Starke, J. Bryan Iorgulescu and Philip H. Gutin

Object

Meningiomas are one of the more common intracranial neoplasms. The risk of seizures and secondary aspiration, brain edema, and brain injury often leads practitioners to administer prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) perioperatively. The efficacy of this practice remains controversial, however, with prior investigations reaching conflicting results and recent studies focusing on AED side effects. The authors performed a systematic analysis of outcomes following supratentorial meningioma resection with and without prophylactic AED administration in the hope of clarifying the role of AEDs in the perioperative care of patients with these lesions.

Methods

A MEDLINE search of the literature (1979–2010) was performed. Comparisons were made for patient and tumor characteristics as well as success of repair, morbidity, and seizure outcome. Statistical analyses of categorical variables were undertaken using chi-square and Fisher exact tests.

Results

Nineteen studies, involving 698 patients, were included. There were no significant differences in the extent of resection, perioperative mortality, or recurrence between the AED and no-AED cohorts. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the incidence of early or late seizures between the cohorts.

Conclusions

The results of this systematic analysis supports the conclusion that the prophylactic administration of anticonvulsants during resection of supratentorial meningiomas provides no benefit in the prevention of either early or late postoperative seizures. Despite their traditional role in this patient population, the routine use of AEDs should be carefully reconsidered.

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Fred Rincon, J. Mocco, Ricardo J. Komotar, Alexander G. Khandji, Paul C. McCormick and Marcelo Olarte

✓Acquired intradural arachnoid cystic lesions of the spine have been associated with trauma, hemorrhage, parasitic infections, and other insults that cause inflammation and subarachnoid adhesions. The authors describe the case of a previously healthy 36-year-old woman who presented with a chronic myelopathy due to the progressive development of a giant spinal arachnoid cyst that resulted after the intrathecal injection of phenol for the management of chronic upper extremity pain. Neurological examination, spinal computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used for diagnostic and follow-up purposes. Even after the initial excision of the cyst, the patient remained symptomatic with minimal functional recovery.

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J Mocco, Carlton S. Prickett, Ricardo J. Komotar, E. Sander Connolly and Stephan A. Mayer

✓In an attempt to elucidate the pathophysiology and clinical significance of global cerebral edema (GCE) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the authors explored potential mechanisms and reviewed findings associated with this phenomenon. Admission computed tomography (CT) scans show GCE in up to 20% of patients experiencing aneurysmal SAH. This edema is likely to have been initiated by transient global ischemia, as indicated by an association between ictal loss of consciousness and the development of edema. A further cascade of events, including a rise in intracranial pressure and compromise of the blood–brain barrier, are also likely contributors. Clinically, GCE on CT after aneurysmal SAH is predictive of a poor outcome. Further investigation is needed to gain a full understanding of edema development following SAH, with the hope that the knowledge can be used to influence treatment positively and improve outcome.

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Ricardo J. Komotar, J Mocco, Sean D. Lavine and Robert A. Solomon

✓Hunterian ligation is a well-known treatment for complex aneurysms not amenable to direct microsurgical clip application. After proximal parent vessel occlusion, cerebral angiography is typically used to confirm aneurysm thrombosis. The authors report on a vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm that had progressively expanded and caused brainstem compression after hunterian ligation, despite nondiagnostic findings on both conventional and computed tomography (CT) angiography at multiple time points.

This 64-year-old woman underwent hunterian ligation of a 1.8-cm VA aneurysm at the origin of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. An immediately postoperative conventional angiogram and follow-up CT angiograms obtained 5 and 6 years postligation confirmed complete obliteration of the lesion. Nine years after the initial surgery, however, the patient experienced neurological deterioration. Although CTs showed substantial aneurysm enlargement together with pontine compression, angiograms once again demonstrated complete right VA occlusion with no retrograde filling of the aneurysm. On reexploration, the aneurysm was effectively debulked, clipped, and obliterated. Arterial bleeding was found in the lesion neck, as was evidence of microrecanalization.

Hunterian ligation for complex aneurysms carries the risk of microrecanalization and lesion expansion despite non-diagnostic angiography. Although this ligation procedure remains a viable treatment option in carefully selected patients, an extended follow-up evaluation period may be required even when imaging suggests aneurysm obliteration.