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Ricardo A. Domingo, Gaetano De Biase, Ramon Navarro, Jaime L. Martinez Santos, Gabriella A. Rivas, Vivek Gupta, David Miller, Bernard R. Bendok, Waleed Brinjikji, W. Christopher Fox, Thien J. Huynh, and Rabih G. Tawk

OBJECTIVE

Available data on management of sacral arteriovenous fistulas (sAVFs) are limited to individual case reports and small series. Management includes observation, endovascular embolization, or surgical ligation, with no clear guidelines on the optimal treatment modality. The authors’ objective was to report their multiinstitutional experience with management of sAVF patients, including clinical and radiographic characteristics and postprocedural outcomes.

METHODS

The electronic medical records of patients with a diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula treated from January 2004 to December 2019 at the authors’ institutions were reviewed, and data were summarized using descriptive statistics, including percentage and count for categorical data, median as a measure of central tendency for continuous variables, and interquartile range (IQR) as a measure of dispersion.

RESULTS

A total of 26 patients with sAVFs were included. The median (IQR) age was 65 (57–73) years, and 73% (n = 19) of patients were male. Lower-extremity weakness was the most common presenting symptom (n = 24 [92%]), and half the patients (n = 13 [50%]) reported bowel and bladder sphincter dysfunction. The median (IQR) time from symptom onset to treatment was 12 (5.25–26.25) months. Radiographically, all patients had T2 hyperintensity at the level of the conus medullaris (CM) (n = 26 [100%]). Intradural flow voids were identified in 85% (n = 22) of patients. The majority of the lesions had a single identifiable arterial feeder (n = 19 [73%]). The fistula was located most commonly at the S1 level (n = 13 [50%]). The site where the draining vein connects to the pial venous plexus was seen predominantly at the lumbar level (n = 16 [62%]). In total, 29 procedures were performed: 10 open surgeries and 19 endovascular embolization procedures. Complete occlusion was achieved in 90% (n = 9) of patients after open surgery and 79% (n = 15) after endovascular embolization. Motor improvement was seen in 68% of patients (n = 15), and bladder and bowel function improved in 9 patients (41%). At last follow-up, 73% (n = 16) of patients had either resolution or improvement of the pretreatment intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity.

CONCLUSIONS

T2 hyperintensity of the CM and a dilated filum terminale vein are consistent radiographic signs of sAVF, and delayed presentation is common. Complete occlusion was achieved in almost all patients after surgery, and endovascular embolization was effective in 70% of the patients. Further studies are needed to determine the best treatment modality based on case-specific characteristics.

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Michael Lumintang Loe, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Ricardo A. Domingo, Johan Heemskerk, Shashwat Tripathi, Bernard R. Bendok, Mohamad Bydon, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, and Kingsley Abode-Iyamah

OBJECTIVE

The authors assessed the prognostic significance of various clinical and radiographic characteristics, including C1–C2 facet malalignment, in terms of surgical outcomes after foramen magnum decompression of adult Chiari malformation type I.

METHODS

The electronic medical records of 273 symptomatic patients with Chiari malformation type I who were treated with foramen magnum decompression, C1 laminectomy, and duraplasty at Mayo Clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative Neurological Scoring System scores were compared using the Friedman test. Bivariate analysis was conducted to identify the preoperative variables that correlated with the patient Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was subsequently performed using the variables with p < 0.05 on the bivariate analysis to check for independent associations with the outcome measures. Statistical software SPSS version 25.0 was used for the data analysis. Significance was defined as p < 0.05 for all analyses.

RESULTS

Fifty-two adult patients with preoperative clinical and radiological data and a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included. Motor deficits, syrinx, and C1–C2 facet malalignment were found to have significant negative associations with the CCOS score at the 1- to 3-month follow-up (p < 0.05), while at the 9- to 12-month follow-up only swallowing function and C1–C2 facet malalignment were significantly associated with the CCOS score (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that syrinx presence and C1–C2 facet malalignment were independently associated with the CCOS score at the 1- to 3-month follow-up. Swallowing function and C1–C2 facet malalignment were found to be independently associated with the CCOS score at the 9- to 12-month follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The observed results in this pilot study suggest a significant negative correlation between C1–C2 facet malalignment and clinical outcomes evaluated by the CCOS score at 1–3 months and 9–12 months postoperatively. Prospective studies are needed to further validate the prognostic value of C1–C2 facet malalignment and the potential role of atlantoaxial fixation as part of the treatment.

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Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Ricardo A. Domingo, Shashwat Tripathi, Gaetano De Biase, Desmond Brown, Oluwaseun O. Akinduro, Andres Ramos-Fresnedo, David S. Sabsevitz, Bernard R. Bendok, Wendy Sherman, Ian F. Parney, Mark E. Jentoft, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Fredric B. Meyer, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ goal was to use a multicenter, observational cohort study to determine whether supramarginal resection (SMR) of FLAIR-hyperintense tumor beyond the contrast-enhanced (CE) area influences the overall survival (OS) of patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase–wild-type (IDH-wt) glioblastoma after gross-total resection (GTR).

METHODS

The medical records of 888 patients aged ≥ 18 years who underwent resection of GBM between January 2011 and December 2017 were reviewed. Volumetric measurements of the CE tumor and surrounding FLAIR-hyperintense tumor were performed, clinical variables were obtained, and associations with OS were analyzed.

RESULTS

In total, 101 patients with newly diagnosed IDH-wt GBM who underwent GTR of the CE tumor met the inclusion criteria. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 65 years (HR 1.97; 95% CI 1.01–2.56; p < 0.001) and contact with the lateral ventricles (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.13–1.78; p = 0.025) were associated with shorter OS, but preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status ≥ 70 (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27–0.89; p = 0.006), MGMT promotor methylation (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.52–0.99; p = 0.044), and increased percentage of SMR (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99; p = 0.02) were associated with longer OS. Finally, 20% SMR was the minimum percentage associated with beneficial OS (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.35–0.89; p = 0.01), but > 60% SMR had no significant influence (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.45–1.21; p = 0.234).

CONCLUSIONS

SMR is associated with improved OS in patients with IDH-wt GBM who undergo GTR of CE tumor. At least 20% SMR of the CE tumor was associated with beneficial OS, but greater than 60% SMR had no significant influence on OS.