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Huy Gia Vuong, Hieu Trong Le, Andrew Jea, Rene McNall-Knapp, and Ian F. Dunn

OBJECTIVE

The prognostic significance and genetic characteristics of H3 K27M–mutant diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) in different anatomical locations requires further clarification. In this study, the authors integrated published data to investigate the differences between brainstem, thalamic, and spinal cord tumors.

METHODS

PubMed and Web of Science databases were used to search for eligible articles. Studies were included if they provided individual patient data of H3 K27M–mutant DMGs with available tumor locations. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to investigate the survival of each subgroup.

RESULTS

Eight hundred four tumors were identified, including 467, 228, and 109 in the brainstem, thalamus, and spine, respectively. Brainstem tumors were primarily observed in young children, while patients with thalamic and spinal cord tumors afflicted older patients. The Ki-67 labeling index was highest in brainstem tumors. Compared to patients with brainstem tumors, those with thalamic (HR 0.573, 95% CI 0.463–0.709; p < 0.001) and spinal cord lesions (HR 0.460, 95% CI 0.341–0.621; p < 0.001) had a significantly better survival. When patients were stratified by age groups, superior overall survival (OS) of thalamic tumors was observed in comparison to brainstem tumors in young children and adolescents, whereas adult tumors had uniform OS regardless of anatomical sites. Genetically, mutations in HIST1H3B/C (H3.1) and ACVR1 genes were mostly detected in brainstem tumors, whereas spinal cord tumors were characterized by a higher incidence of mutations in the TERT promoter.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated that H3 K27M–mutant DMGs have distinct clinical characteristics, prognoses, and molecular profiles in different anatomical locations.

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Audrey Grossen, Theresa Gavula, Deepti Chrusciel, Alexander Evans, Rene McNall-Knapp, Ashley Taylor, Benay Fossey, Margaret Brakefield, Carrick Carter, Nadine Schwartz, Naina Gross, Andrew Jea, and Virendra Desai

OBJECTIVE

Neurocutaneous syndromes have variable multisystem involvement. The multiorgan involvement, potential pathologies, and various treatment options necessitate collaboration and open discussion to ensure optimal treatment in any given patient. These disorders provide quintessential examples of chronic medical conditions that require a lifelong, multidisciplinary approach. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a systematic review, thoroughly assessing different multidisciplinary clinic layouts utilized in centers worldwide; and 2) characterize an institutional experience with the management of these conditions, focusing on the patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies seen in a patient population.

METHODS

A systematic review of studies involving multidisciplinary clinics and their reported structure was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using the PubMed database. Then a retrospective chart review of patients enrolled in the Oklahoma Children’s Hospital Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic was conducted.

RESULTS

A search of the PubMed database yielded 251 unique results. Of these, 15 papers were included in the analysis, which identified 16 clinics that treated more than 2000 patients worldwide. The majority of these clinics treated patients with neurofibromatosis (13/16). The remaining clinics treated patients with von Hippel–Lindau syndrome (n = 1), tuberous sclerosis complex (n = 1), and multiple neurocutaneous syndromes (n = 1). The most commonly represented subspecialties in these clinics were genetics (15/16) and neurology (13/16). Five clinics (31%) solely saw pediatric patients, 10 clinics saw a combination of children and adults, and the final clinic had separate pediatric and adult clinics. The retrospective chart review of the Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic demonstrated that 164 patients were enrolled and seen in the clinic from April 2013 to December 2021. Diagnoses were made based on clinical findings or results of genetic testing; 115 (70%) had neurofibromatosis type 1, 9 (5.5%) had neurofibromatosis type 2, 35 (21%) had tuberous sclerosis complex, 2 (1%) had von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, 2 (1%) had Gorlin syndrome, and the remaining patient (0.6%) had Aarskog-Scott syndrome. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies are also discussed.

CONCLUSIONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a comprehensive pediatric neurocutaneous clinic in the US that serves patients with multiple syndromes. There is currently heterogeneity between described multidisciplinary clinic structures and practices. More detailed accounts of clinic compositions and practices along with patient data and outcomes are needed in order to establish the most comprehensive and efficient multidisciplinary approach for neurocutaneous syndromes.