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Haihui Jiang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaohui Ren, Wei Zeng, Junmei Wang and Song Lin

OBJECTIVE

1p/19q co-deletion is a well-established tumor cell–specific chromosomal abnormality in oligodendroglial tumors. The endothelial cells (ECs) of oligodendroglial tumor vessels are considered to be normal cells that do not acquire mutations.

METHODS

A total of 30 samples from 16 male and 14 female patients (median age of 46.5 years) with a histological diagnosis of primary anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were collected in the study. The immunofluorescence technique was used to identify vascular ECs, and the 1p/19q status was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier plots were compared using the log-rank method.

RESULTS

The ECs in AO had a higher 1p36 (detected signal) deletion rate than 1q25 (reference signal) (p < 0.01) and a higher 19q13 (detected signal) deletion rate than 19p13 (reference signal) (p < 0.01). The survival analysis results showed that both the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients with 1p/19q–co-deleted ECs were significantly longer than those with 1p/19q-intact ECs (PFS, p < 0.001; OS, p < 0.001). This correlation was validated by an independent cohort. In addition, the Cox regression model revealed that 1p/19q co-deletion in ECs was an independent prognostic factor (HR 0.056 [95% CI 0.012–0.261], p < 0.001 for PFS; HR 0.061 [95% CI 0.013–0.280], p < 0.01 for OS).

CONCLUSIONS

1p/19q co-deletion and polysomy can be also found in the ECs of AO, which suggests that the ECs are, in part, tumor related and reflect a novel aspect of tumor angiogenesis.

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Haihui Jiang, Yong Cui, Xiang Liu, Xiaohui Ren, Mingxiao Li and Song Lin

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extent of resection (EOR) and survival in terms of clinical, molecular, and radiological factors in high-grade astrocytoma (HGA).

METHODS

Clinical and radiological data from 585 cases of molecularly defined HGA were reviewed. In each case, the EOR was evaluated twice: once according to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1WI) and once according to fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. The ratio of the volume of the region of abnormality in CE-T1WI to that in FLAIR images (VFLAIR/VCE-T1WI) was calculated and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff value for that ratio. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the prognostic value of each factor.

RESULTS

Both the EOR evaluated from CE-T1WI and the EOR evaluated from FLAIR could divide the whole cohort into 4 subgroups with different survival outcomes (p < 0.001). Cases were stratified into 2 subtypes based on VFLAIR/VCE-T1WI with a cutoff of 10: a proliferation-dominant subtype and a diffusion-dominant subtype. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant survival advantage for the proliferation-dominant subtype (p < 0.0001). The prognostic implication has been further confirmed in the Cox proportional hazards model (HR 1.105, 95% CI 1.078–1.134, p < 0.0001). The survival of patients with proliferation-dominant HGA was significantly prolonged in association with extensive resection of the FLAIR abnormality region beyond contrast-enhancing tumor (p = 0.03), while no survival benefit was observed in association with the extensive resection in the diffusion-dominant subtype (p = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS

VFLAIR/VCE-T1WI is an important classifier that could divide the HGA into 2 subtypes with distinct invasive features. Patients with proliferation-dominant HGA can benefit from extensive resection of the FLAIR abnormality region, which provides the theoretical basis for a personalized resection strategy.

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Ren Lin, Lili Luo, Yiran Gong, Jingsheng Zheng, Shuiyue Wang, Junjie Du and Daoshu Luo

OBJECTIVE

The trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ) is a transitional zone between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), adjacent to the brainstem. Microvascular compression of the TREZ has been considered to be the primary etiology in most cases of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of TN is still unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of histone H3 acetylation in the TREZ in an animal model of TN.

METHODS

An animal model of TN was established, and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a TN group with trigeminal nerve root compression, sham operation group, TN+HDACi group (TN plus selective histone deacetylase inhibitor injection into the TREZ), or TN+Veh group (TN plus vehicle injection into the TREZ). To measure the length of the central portion of the TREZ from the junction of the trigeminal nerve root entering the pons to the interface of the dome-shaped CNS-PNS transitional zone, immunofluorescent staining of glia and glial nuclei was performed using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody and DAPI, respectively. To investigate the acetylation of histone H3 within the TREZ in a TN animal model group and a sham operation group, localization of histone H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27 acetylation was examined via immunohistochemical staining methods.

RESULTS

Measurements of the CNS-PNS transitional zone in the TREZ revealed that the average length from the junction of the trigeminal nerve root connecting the pons to the glial fringe of the TREZ in the TN group was longer than that in the sham operation group (p < 0.05) and that the interface gradually migrated distally. Cells that stained positive for acetylated histone H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27 were distributed around both sides of the border of the CNS-PNS junction in the TREZ. The ratio of immunoreactive H3K9-, H3K18- and H3K27-positive cells in the TN group was obviously higher than that in the sham operation group on postoperative days 7, 14, 21, and 28 (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggested that chronic compression of the trigeminal nerve root may be involved in the pathogenesis of TN in an animal model by influencing the plasticity of the CNS-PNS transitional zone and the level of histone acetylation in the TREZ.

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K. Francis Lee, William H. Whiteley III, Norman J. Schatz, Jack Edeiken, Shu-ren Lin and Fong-Young Tsai

✓ Seven patients are described who had juxtasellar hyperostosis with visual disturbance secondary to non-meningiomatous lesions. Two had chromophobe adenomas, one craniopharyngioma, one carcinoma of the sphenoid sinus, one a thrombosed aneurysm of the intracavernous portion of the internal carotid artery, one epidermoidoma of the orbit, and one chondroblastoma of the anterior clinoid process. The diagnosis of meningioma was entertained initially on the basis of hyperostosis plus visual impairment. Careful evaluation of hyperostosis is essential for correct diagnosis of meningioma, according to our experience. Suprasellar meningiomas almost invariably produce irregular hyperostosis of the planum sphenoidale, often associated with serration and blistering. Sphenoid meningioma, when it is sclerotic, always shows thickening or expansion of the sphenoid wings. Therefore, in the absence of typical meningiomatous hyperostosis, one can readily differentiate non-meningiomatous hyperostosis from true meningioma.

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Yong-Jian Zhu, Guang-Yu Ying, Ai-Qin Chen, Lin-Lin Wang, Dan-Feng Yu, Liang-Liang Zhu, Yu-Cheng Ren, Chen Wang, Peng-Cheng Wu, Ying Yao, Fang Shen and Jian-Min Zhang

OBJECT

Posterior midline laminectomy or hemilaminectomy has been successfully applied as the standard microsurgical technique for the treatment of spinal intradural pathologies. However, the associated risks of postoperative spinal instability increase the need for subsequent fusion surgery to prevent potential long-term spinal deformity. Continuous efforts have been made to minimize injuries to the surrounding tissue resulting from surgical manipulations. The authors report here their experiences with a novel minimally invasive surgical approach, namely the interlaminar approach, for the treatment of lumbar intraspinal tumors.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted of patients at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine who underwent minimally invasive resection of lumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors. By using an operative microscope, in addition to an endoscope when necessary, the authors were able to treat all patients with a unilateral, paramedian, bone-sparing interlaminar technique. Data including preoperative neurological status, tumor location, size, pathological diagnosis, extension of resections, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcomes were obtained through clinical and radiological examinations.

RESULTS

Eighteen patients diagnosed with lumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors were treated from October 2013 to March 2015 by this interlaminar technique. A microscope was used in 15 cases, and the remaining 3 cases were treated using a microscope as well as an endoscope. There were 14 schwannomas, 2 ependymomas, 1 epidermoid cyst, and 1 enterogenous cyst. Postoperative radiological follow-up revealed complete removal of all the lesions and no signs of bone defects in the lamina. At clinical follow-up, 14 of the 18 patients had less pain, and patients' motor/sensory functions improved or remained normal in all cases except 1.

CONClUSIONS

When meeting certain selection criteria, intradural-extramedullary lumbar tumors, especially schwannomas, can be completely and safely resected through a less-invasive interlaminar approach using a microscope, or a microscope in addition to an endoscope when necessary. This approach was advantageous because it caused even less bone destruction, resulting in better postoperative spinal stability, no need for facetectomy and fusion, and quicker functional recovery for the patients. Individualized surgical planning according to preoperative radiological findings is key to a successful microsurgical resection of these lesions through the interlaminar space.

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Xiaohui Ren, Song Lin, Zhongcheng Wang, Lin Luo, Zhongli Jiang, Dali Sui, Zhiyong Bi, Yong Cui, Wenqing Jia, Yan Zhang, Lanbing Yu and Siyuan Chen

Object

Most intracranial epidermoid cysts typically present with long T1 and T2 signals on MR images. Other epidermoid cysts with atypical MR images are often misdiagnosed as other diseases. In this study the authors aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of atypical epidermoid cysts.

Methods

Among 428 cases of intracranial epidermoid cysts that were surgically treated between 2002 and 2008 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, cases with an atypical MR imaging appearance were chosen for analysis. Clinical and pathological parameters were recorded and compared in patients with lesions demonstrating typical and atypical MR appearance.

Results

An atypical epidermoid cyst accounts for 5.6% of the whole series. Radiologically, 58.3% of atypical epidermoids were misdiagnosed as other diseases. Compared with a typical epidermoid cyst, atypical epidermoid lesions were significantly larger (p = 0.016, chi-square test). Pathologically, hemorrhage was found in 21 patients with atypical epidermoid cyst and is significantly correlated with granulation (p = 0.010, Fisher exact test). Old hemorrhage was found in 13 cases and was significantly correlated with cholesterol crystals. Twenty-one patients were followed up for 1.3–8.6 years after surgery. The 5- and 8-year survival rates were both 100%. Three patients experienced cyst recurrence. The 5- and 8-year recurrence-free rates were 95% and 81.4%, respectively.

Conclusions

Radiologically, an atypical epidermoid cyst should be differentiated from dermoid cyst, teratoma, schwannoma, glioma, craniopharyngioma, and cavernous angioma. A tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage is confirmed in atypical epidermoid cysts, and a hypothesis was proposed for spontaneously intracystic hemorrhage in atypical epidermoid cysts. Follow-up confirmed long-term survival of patients with atypical epidermoid cysts.

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Huei-Chuan Shih, Chih-Lung Lin, Shu-Chuan Wu, Aij-Lie Kwan, Yi-Ren Hong and Shen-Long Howng

Object

The authors previously demonstrated that 17β-estradiol benzoate (E2) treatment prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)–induced cerebral vasospasm and preserves endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in male rats. Changes in the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes ERα and -β and their roles in the E2-mediated preservation of eNOS in SAH remain unknown. In the present study the effects of SAH on the expression of ERα and -β in the cerebral arteries were clarified, and the receptor roles in the E2-mediated preservation of eNOS expression in SAH were differentiated.

Methods

A 2-hemorrhage SAH model was induced by 2 autologous blood injections into the cisterna magna of adult male rats. The effect of SAH on ERα and -β expression was evaluated. Other rats subcutaneously received implanted Silastic tubes containing corn oil with E2 and daily injections of various doses of an ERα- (methyl-piperidinopyrazole [MPP]) or ERβ-selective antagonist (R,R-tetrahydrochrysene) after the first hemorrhage. The protein levels of ERα, ERβ, eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from basilar arteries were examined using Western blot analysis, and their mRNAs were evaluated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.

Results

The ERα but not the ERβ was upregulated in the basilar artery after SAH. Treatment with MPP eliminated E2-mediated effects in SAH, relieved cerebral vasospasm, preserved eNOS expression, and suppressed iNOS expression.

Conclusions

Estrogen receptor α is upregulated in the basilar artery after SAH. Note that E2 exerts its protective effects through ERα-dependent pathways to relieve cerebral vasospasm and preserve eNOS expression. A selective ERα agonist may be the drug of choice for the treatment of patients with SAH.

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Xiao-hui Ren, Chun Chu, Chun Zeng, Yong-ji Tian, Zhen-yu Ma, Kai Tang, Lan-bing Yu, Xiang-li Cui, Zhong-cheng Wang and Song Lin

Object

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are rare, potentially curable, benign lesions that are sometimes associated with severe postoperative complications, including hemorrhage. Delayed hemorrhage, defined as one that occurred after an initial unremarkable postoperative CT scan, contributed to most cases of postoperative hemorrhage in patients with epidermoid cyst. In this study, the authors focus on delayed hemorrhage as one of the severe postoperative complications in epidermoid cyst, report its incidence and its clinical features, and analyze related clinical parameters.

Methods

There were 428 cases of intracranial epidermoid cysts that were surgically treated between 2002 and 2008 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital, and these were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, the cases with delayed postoperative hemorrhage were chosen for analysis. Clinical parameters were recorded, including the patient's age and sex, the chief surgeon's experience in neurosurgery, the year in which the operation was performed, tumor size, adhesion to neurovascular structures, and degree of resection. These parameters were compared in patients with and without delayed postoperative hemorrhage to identify risk factors associated with this entity.

Results

The incidences of postoperative hemorrhage and delayed postoperative hemorrhage in patients with epidermoid cyst were 5.61% (24 of 428) and 4.91% (21 of 428), respectively, both of which were significantly higher than that of postoperative hemorrhage in all concurrently treated intracranial tumors, which was 0.91% (122 of 13,479). The onset of delayed postoperative hemorrhage ranged from the 5th to 23rd day after the operation; the median time of onset was the 8th day. The onset manifestation included signs of intracranial hypertension and/or meningeal irritation (71.4%), brain herniation (14.3%), seizures (9.5%), and syncope (4.8%). Neuroimages revealed hematoma in 11 cases and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 10 cases. The rehemorrhage rate was 38.1% (8 of 21). The mortality rate for delayed postoperative hemorrhage was 28.6% (6 of 21). None of the clinical parameters was correlated with delayed postoperative hemorrhage (p > 0.05), despite a relatively lower p value for adhesion to neurovascular structures (p = 0.096).

Conclusions

Delayed postoperative hemorrhage contributed to most of the postoperative hemorrhages in patients with intracranial epidermoid cysts and was a unique postoperative complication with unfavorable outcomes. Adhesion to neurovascular structures was possibly related to delayed postoperative hemorrhage (p = 0.096).

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Bing Zhao, Yu-Kui Wei, Gui-Lin Li, Yong-Ning Li, Yong Yao, Jun Kang, Wen-Bin Ma, Yi Yang and Ren-Zhi Wang

Object

The standard transsphenoidal approach has been successfully used to resect most pituitary adenomas. However, as a result of the limited exposure provided by this procedure, complete surgical removal of pituitary adenomas with parasellar or retrosellar extension remains problematic. By additional bone removal of the cranial base, the extended transsphenoidal approach provides better exposure to the parasellar and clival region compared with the standard approach. The authors describe their surgical experience with the extended transsphenoidal approach to remove pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, cavernous sinus (CS), and clivus.

Methods

Retrospective analysis was performed in 126 patients with pituitary adenomas that were surgically treated via the extended transsphenoidal approach between September 1999 and March 2008. There were 55 male and 71 female patients with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 12–75 years). There were 82 cases of macroadenoma and 44 cases of giant adenoma.

Results

Gross-total resection was achieved in 78 patients (61.9%), subtotal resection in 43 (34.1%), and partial resection in 5 (4%). Postoperative complications included transient cerebrospinal rhinorrhea (7 cases), incomplete cranial nerve palsy (5), panhypopituitarism (5), internal carotid artery injury (2), monocular blindness (2), permanent diabetes insipidus (1), and perforation of the nasal septum (2). No intraoperative or postoperative death was observed.

Conclusions

The extended transsphenoidal approach provides excellent exposure to pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, CS, and clivus. This approach enhances the degree of tumor resection and keeps postoperative complications relatively low. However, radical resection of tumors that are firm, highly invasive to the CS, or invading multidirectionally remains a big challenge. This procedure not only allows better visualization of the tumor and the neurovascular structures but also provides significant working space under the microscope, which facilitates intraoperative manipulation. Preoperative imaging studies and new techniques such as the neuronavigation system and the endoscope improve the efficacy and safety of tumor resection.

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Feng Yan, Gary Rajah, Yuchuan Ding, Yang Hua, Hongqi Zhang, Liqun Jiao, Guilin Li, Ming Ren, Ran Meng, Feng Lin and Xunming Ji

OBJECTIVE

Symptomatic intracranial hypertension can be caused by cerebral venous sinus stenosis (CVSS) and cerebral venous sinus thrombotic (CVST) stenosis, which is usually found in some patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Recently, at the authors’ center, they utilized intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as an adjunct to conventional venoplasty or stenting to facilitate diagnosis and accurate stent placement in CVSS.

METHODS

The authors designed a retrospective review of their prospective database of patients who underwent IVUS-guided venous sinus stenting between April 2016 and February 2017. Clinical, radiological, and ophthalmological information was recorded and analyzed. IVUS was performed in 12 patients with IIH (9 with nonthrombotic CVSS, 3 with secondary stenosis combined with CVST) during venoplasty through venous access. The IVUS catheter was used from a proximal location to the site of stenosis. Post-stenting follow-up, including symptomatic improvement, stent patency, and adjacent-site stenosis, was assessed at 1 year.

RESULTS

Thirteen stenotic cerebral sinuses in 12 patients were corrected using IVUS-guided stenting. No technical or neurological complications were encountered. The IVUS images were excellent for the diagnosis of the stenosis, and intraluminal thrombi were clearly visualized by using IVUS in 3 (25%) of the 12 patients. A giant arachnoid granulation was demonstrated in 1 (8.3%) of the 12 patients. Intravenous compartments or septations (2 of 12, 16.7%) and vessel wall thickening (6 of 12, 50%) were also noted. At 1-year follow-up, 10 of 12 patients were clinically symptom-free in our series.

CONCLUSIONS

IVUS is a promising tool with the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy in IIH, aiding in identification of the types of intracranial venous stenosis, assisting in stent selection, and guiding stent placement. Further study of the utility of IVUS in venous stenting and venous stenosis pathology is warranted.