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Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Hal Meltzer, Michael L. Levy and David Gonda

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an established and effective treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus. In its most common application, surgeons plan their entry point and the endoscope trajectory for the procedure based on anatomical landmarks, then control the endoscope freehand. Recent studies report an incidence of neural injuries as high as 16.6% of all ETVs performed in North America. The authors have introduced the ROSA system to their ETV procedure to stereotactically optimize endoscope trajectories, to reduce risk of traction on neural structures by the endoscope, and to provide a stable mechanical holder of the endoscope. Here, they present their series in which the ROSA system was used for ETVs.

METHODS

At the authors’ institution, they performed ETVs with the ROSA system in 9 consecutive patients within an 8-month period. Patients had to have a favorable expected response to ETV (ETV Success Score ≥ 70) with no additional endoscopic procedures (e.g., choroid plexus cauterization, septum pellucidum fenestration). The modality of image registration (CT, MRI, surface mapping, or bone fiducials) was dependent on the case.

RESULTS

Nine pediatric patients with an age range of 1.5 to 16 years, 4 girls and 5 boys, with ETV Success Scores ranging from 70 to 90, underwent successful ETV surgery with the ROSA system within an 8-month period. Their intracranial pathologies included tectal tumors (n = 3), communicating hydrocephalus from hemorrhage or meningeal disease (n = 2), congenital aqueductal stenosis (n = 1), compressive porencephalic cyst (n = 1), Chiari I malformation (n = 1), and pineal region mass (n = 1). Robotic assistance was limited to the ventricular access in the first 2 procedures, but was used for the entirety of the procedure for the following 7 cases. Four of these cases were combined with another procedural objective (3 stereotactic tectal mass biopsies, 1 Chiari decompression). A learning curve was observed with each subsequent surgery as registration and surgical times became shorter and more efficient. All patients had complete resolution of their preprocedural symptoms. There were no complications.

CONCLUSIONS

The ROSA system provides a stable, precise, and minimally invasive approach to ETVs.

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Reid Hoshide, Harrison Faulkner, Mario Teo and Charles Teo

OBJECTIVE

There are numerous treatment strategies in the management for large vestibular schwannomas, including resection only, staged resections, resections followed by radiosurgery, and radiosurgery only. Recent evidence has pointed toward maximal resection as being the optimum strategy to prevent tumor recurrence; however, durable tumor control through aggressive resection has been shown to occur at the expense of facial nerve function and to risk other approach-related complications. Through a retrospective analysis of their single-institution series of keyhole neurosurgical approaches for large vestibular schwannomas, the authors aim to report and justify key techniques to maximize tumor resection and reduce surgical morbidity.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed at the Centre for Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery. All patients who had undergone a keyhole retrosigmoid approach for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas, defined as having a tumor diameter of ≥ 3.0 cm, were included in this review. Patient demographics, preoperative cranial nerve status, perioperative data, and postoperative follow-up were obtained. A review of the literature for resections of large vestibular schwannomas was also performed. The authors’ institutional data were compared with the historical data from the literature.

RESULTS

Between 2004 and 2017, 45 patients met the inclusion criteria for this retrospective chart review. When compared with findings in a historical cohort in the literature, the authors’ minimally invasive, keyhole retrosigmoid technique for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas achieved higher rates of gross-total or near-total resection (100% vs 83%). Moreover, these results compare favorably with the literature in facial nerve preservation (House-Brackmann I–II) at follow-up after gross-total resections (81% vs 47%, p < 0.001) and near-total resections (88% vs 75%, p = 0.028). There were no approach-related complications in this series.

CONCLUSIONS

It is the experience of the senior author that complete or near-complete resection of large vestibular schwannomas can be successfully achieved via a keyhole approach. In this series of 45 large vestibular schwannomas, a greater extent of resection was achieved while demonstrating high rates of facial nerve preservation and low approach-related and postoperative complications compared with the literature.

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Robert C. Rennert, Reid R. Hoshide, Jason W. Signorelli, Deirdre Amaro, Jayson A. Sack, Cameron W. Brennan and Clark C. Chen

The authors report an unusual case of a widely metastatic glioblastoma. DNA copy number microarray profile of the resected specimen revealed complex rearrangements found throughout chromosome 6, a phenomenon known as chromothripsis. Such chromothripsis pattern was not observed in 50 nonmetastatic glioblastoma specimens analyzed. Analysis of the 1000+ gliomas profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set revealed one case of chromosome 6 chromothripsis resembling the case described here. This TCGA patient died within 6 months of undergoing tumor resection. Implications of these findings are reviewed in the context of the current literature.

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Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Monisha Dilip, Michael G. Brandel, Joyce K. McIntyre, Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Amanda A. Gosman, Steven R. Cohen and Hal S. Meltzer

OBJECTIVE

In this paper the authors review their 16-year single-institution consecutive patient experience in the endoscopic treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis with an emphasis on careful review of any associated treatment-related complications and methods of complication avoidance, including preoperative planning, intraoperative management, and postoperative care and follow-up.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients undergoing endoscopic, minimally invasive surgery for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis at Rady Children’s Hospital from 2000 to 2015. All patients were operated on by a single neurosurgeon in collaboration with two plastic and reconstructive surgeons as part of the institution’s craniofacial team.

RESULTS

Two hundred thirty-five patients underwent minimally invasive endoscopic surgery for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis from 2000 to 2015. The median age at surgery was 3.8 months. The median operative and anesthesia times were 55 and 105 minutes, respectively. The median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 25 ml (median percentage EBL 4.2%). There were no identified episodes of air embolism or operative deaths. One patient suffered an intraoperative sagittal sinus injury, 2 patients underwent intraoperative conversion of planned endoscopic to open procedures, 1 patient experienced a dural tear, and 1 patient had an immediate reexploration for a developing subgaleal hematoma. Two hundred twenty-five patients (96%) were admitted directly to the standard surgical ward where the median length of stay was 1 day. Eight patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) postoperatively, 7 of whom had preexisting medical conditions that the team had identified preoperatively as necessitating a planned ICU admission. The 30-day readmission rate was 1.7% (4 patients), only 1 of whom had a diagnosis (surgical site infection) related to their initial admission. Average length of follow-up was 2.8 years (range < 1 year to 13.4 years). Six children (< 3%) had subsequent open procedures for perceived suboptimal aesthetic results, 4 of whom (> 66%) had either coronal or metopic craniosynostosis. No patient in this series either presented with or subsequently developed signs or symptoms of intracranial hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS

In this large single-center consecutive patient series in the endoscopic treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, significant complications were avoided, allowing for postoperative care for the vast majority of infants on a standard surgical ward. No deaths, catastrophic postoperative morbidity, or evidence of the development of symptomatic intracranial hypertension was observed.

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Robert C. Rennert, Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Joanna Kemp, David D. Gonda, Hal S. Meltzer, Takanori Fukushima, John D. Day and Michael L. Levy

OBJECTIVE

Treatment of hemorrhagic cavernous malformations within the lateral pontine region demands meticulous surgical planning and execution to maximize resection while minimizing morbidity. The authors report a single institution’s experience using the extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the safe resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed to identify and review the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent an extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons during a 10-year period at Rady Children’s Hospital of San Diego. Surgical landmarks for this extradural approach were based on the Fukushima dual-fan model, which defines the rhomboid based on the following anatomical structures: 1) the junction of the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) and mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve; 2) the lateral edge of the porus trigeminus; 3) the intersection of the petrous ridge and arcuate eminence; and 4) the intersection of the GSPN, geniculate ganglion, and arcuate eminence. The boundaries of maximal bony removal for this approach are the clivus inferiorly below the inferior petrosal sinus; unroofing of the internal auditory canal posteriorly; skeletonizing the geniculate ganglion, GSPN, and internal carotid artery laterally; and drilling under the Gasserian ganglion anteriorly. This extradural petrosectomy allowed for an approach to all lesions from an area posterolateral to the basilar artery near its junction with cranial nerve (CN) VI, superior to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and lateral to the origin of CN V. Retraction of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve during this approach allowed avoidance of the region involving CN IV and the superior cerebellar artery.

RESULTS

Eight pediatric patients (4 girls and 4 boys, mean age of 13.2 ± 4.6 years) with hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons and extension to the pial surface were treated using the surgical approach described above. Seven cavernomas were completely resected. In the eighth patient, a second peripheral lesion was not resected with the primary lesion. One patient had a transient CN VI palsy, and 2 patients had transient trigeminal hypesthesia/dysesthesia. One patient experienced a CSF leak that was successfully treated by oversewing the wound.

CONCLUSIONS

The extended middle fossa approach can be used for resection of lateral pontine hemorrhagic cavernomas with minimal morbidity in the pediatric population.

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Robert C. Rennert, Reid Hoshide, Michael G. Brandel, Jeffrey A. Steinberg, Joel R. Martin, Hal S. Meltzer, David D. Gonda, Takanori Fukushima, Alexander A. Khalessi and Michael L. Levy

OBJECTIVE

Lesions of the foramen magnum, inferolateral-to-midclival areas, and ventral pons and medulla are often treated using a far-lateral or extreme-lateral infrajugular transcondylar–transtubercular exposure (ELITE) approach. The development and surgical relevance of critical posterior skull base bony structures encountered during these approaches, including the occipital condyle (OC), hypoglossal canal (HGC), and jugular tubercle (JT), are nonetheless poorly defined in the pediatric population.

METHODS

Measurements from high-resolution CT scans were made of the relevant posterior skull base anatomy (HGC depth from posterior edge of the OC, OC and JT dimensions) from 60 patients (evenly distributed among ages 0–3, 4–7, 8–11, 12–15, 16–18, and > 18 years), and compared between laterality, sex, and age groups by using t-tests and linear regression.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in posterior skull base parameters by laterality, and HGC depth and JT size did not differ by sex. The OC area was significantly larger in males versus females (174.3 vs 152.2 mm2; p = 0.01). From ages 0–3 years to adult, the mean HGC depth increased 27% (from 9.0 to 11.4 mm) and the OC area increased 52% (from 121.4 to 184.0 mm2). The majority of growth for these parameters occurred between the 0–3 year and 4–7 year age groups. Conversely, JT volume increased nearly 3-fold (281%) from 97.4 to 370.9 mm3 from ages 0–3 years to adult, with two periods of substantial growth seen between the 0–3 to 4–7 year and the 12–15 to 16–18 year age groups. Overall, JT growth during pediatric development was significantly greater than increases in HGC depth and OC area (p < 0.05). JT volume remained < 65% of adult size up to age 16.

CONCLUSIONS

When considering a far-lateral or ELITE approach in pediatric patients, standard OC drilling is likely to be needed due to the relative stability of OC and HGC anatomy during development. The JT significantly increases in size with development, yet is only likely to need to be drilled in older children (> 16 years) and adults.