Neonatal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare, but if left untreated will advance to life-threatening neurological and cardiovascular compromise. Endovascular treatment is the preferred treatment modality for DAVFs. The goal of endovascular therapy is to obliterate feeding vasculature and prevent secondary complications. Endovascular access can be difficult to obtain in a neonate. The authors present the case of a full-term, normal birth weight neonate with severe congestive heart failure secondary to a congenital DAVF of the torcular herophili that was successfully treated with transumbilical arterial coil embolization and a liquid embolic agent.
George W. Koutsouras, Redi Rahmani, Tyler Schmidt, Howard Silberstein, and Tarun Bhalla
Redi Rahmani, Madhav Sukumaran, Angela M. Donaldson, Olga Akselrod, Ehud Lavi, and Theodore H. Schwartz
Xanthogranulomas are rare inflammatory masses most often found in the skin and eye. The incidence of intracranial xanthogranulomas is 1.6%–7%, with those found in the sellar and parasellar region being exceedingly rare and their etiology controversial. Sellar and parasellar xanthogranulomas are rarely reported in the western hemisphere, and their incidence in Western countries is unknown.
A prospectively acquired database of all endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries performed at Weill Cornell Medical College was queried. Patients with histologically confirmed xanthogranulomas who were diagnosed and treated between 2003 and 2013 were included in the study. Patient history, demographic data, histological findings, and surgical approach were also evaluated.
A total of 643 endonasal endoscopic procedures had been performed at the time of this study. Four patients (0.6%) were identified as having a histologically confirmed xanthogranuloma of the parasellar region, compared with an incidence of 6.7% for craniopharyngioma (CP) and 2% for Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). The most common symptom was visual loss, followed by headache. Preoperative diagnosis was CP in all cases. All patients underwent extended endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery with gross-total resection. Two patients developed panhypopituitarism after surgery. There were no CSF leaks. The mean follow-up was 61 months, at which time there were no recurrences. The key histological features differentiating xanthogranulomas from CPs were accumulation of foamy macrophages, multinucleated foreign body giant cells, cholesterol clefts, and hemosiderin deposits without stratified squamous epithelium. These histological features appear commonly as part of the spectrum of a secondary inflammatory response in an RCC.
Parasellar xanthogranulomas most closely approximate CPs clinically but pathological evidence may suggest an RCC origin. Gross-total resection can be achieved through extended endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches, and is curative.
Derrek Schartz, Thomas K. Mattingly, Redi Rahmani, Nathaniel Ellens, Sajal Medha K. Akkipeddi, Tarun Bhalla, and Matthew T. Bender
Microsurgery for cerebral aneurysms is called definitive, yet some patients undergo a craniotomy that results in noncurative treatment. Furthermore, the overall rate of noncurative microsurgery for cerebral aneurysms is unclear. The objective of this study was to complete a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify three scenarios of noncurative treatment: aneurysm wrapping, postclipping remnants, and late regrowth of completely obliterated aneurysms.
A PRISMA-guided systematic literature review of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases and meta-analysis was completed. Studies were included that detailed rates of aneurysm wrapping, residua confirmed with imaging, and regrowth after confirmed total occlusion. Pooled rates were subsequently calculated using a random-effects model. An assessment of statistical heterogeneity and publication bias among the included studies was also completed for each analysis, with resultant I2 values and p values determined with Egger’s test.
Sixty-four studies met the inclusion criteria for final analysis. In 41 studies, 573/15,715 aneurysms were wrapped, for a rate of 3.5% (95% CI 2.7%–4.2%, I2 = 88%). In 43 studies, 906/13,902 aneurysms had residual neck or dome filling, for a rate of 6.4% (95% CI 5.2%–7.6%, I2 = 93%). In 15 studies, 71/2568 originally fully occluded aneurysms showed regrowth, for a rate of 2.1% (95% CI 1.2%–3.1%, I2 = 58%). Together, there was a total rate of noncurative surgery of 12.0% (95% CI 11.5%–12.5%). Egger’s test suggested no significant publication bias among the studies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the reported rate of aneurysm wrapping has significantly declined over time, whereas the rates of aneurysm residua and recurrence have not significantly changed.
Open microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm results in noncurative treatment approximately 12% of the time. This metric may be used to counsel patients and as a benchmark for other treatment modalities. This investigation is limited by the high degree of heterogeneity among the included studies.
Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Candice L. Nguyen, Dara S. Farhadi, Brandon Ngo, Caleb Rutledge, Redi Rahmani, Jacob F. Baranoski, Tyler S. Cole, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, Andrew F. Ducruet, and Felipe C. Albuquerque
The incidence and severity of stroke are disproportionately greater among Black patients. In this study, the authors sought to examine clinical outcomes among Black versus White patients after mechanical thrombectomy for stroke at a single US institution.
All patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at a single center from January 1, 2014, through March 31, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were grouped based on race, and demographic characteristics, preexisting conditions, clinical presentation, treatment, and stroke outcomes were compared. The association of race with mortality was analyzed in multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders.
In total, 401 patients (233 males) with a reported race of Black (n = 28) or White (n = 373) underwent mechanical thrombectomy during the study period. Tobacco use was more prevalent among Black patients (43% vs 24%, p = 0.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to insurance, coronary artery disease, diabetes, illicit drug use, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. The mean time from stroke onset to hospital presentation was significantly greater among Black patients (604.6 vs 333.4 minutes) (p = 0.007). There were no differences in fluoroscopy time, procedural success (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3), hospital length of stay, or prevalence of hemicraniectomy. In multivariable analysis, Black race was strongly associated with higher mortality (32.1% vs 14.5%, p = 0.01). The disparity in mortality rates resolved after adjusting for the average time from stroke onset to presentation (p = 0.14).
Black race was associated with an increased risk of death after mechanical thrombectomy for stroke. The increased risk may be associated with access-related factors, including delayed presentation to stroke centers.
Joshua S. Catapano, Mohamed A. Labib, Visish M. Srinivasan, Candice L. Nguyen, Kavelin Rumalla, Redi Rahmani, Tyler S. Cole, Jacob F. Baranoski, Caleb Rutledge, Kristina M. Chapple, Andrew F. Ducruet, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Joseph M. Zabramski, and Michael T. Lawton
The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) was a single-center trial that compared endovascular coiling to microsurgical clipping in patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, because patients in the BRAT were treated more than 15 years ago, and because there have been advances since then—particularly in endovascular techniques—the relevance of the BRAT today remains controversial. Some hypothesize that these technical advances may reduce retreatment rates for endovascular intervention. In this study, the authors analyzed data for the post-BRAT (PBRAT) era to compare microsurgical clipping with endovascular embolization (coiling and flow diverters) in the two time periods and to examine how the results of the original BRAT have influenced the practice of neurosurgeons at the study institution.
In this retrospective cohort study, the authors evaluated patients with saccular aSAHs who were treated at a single quaternary center from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2019. The saccular aSAH diagnoses were confirmed by cerebrovascular experts. Patients were separated into two cohorts for comparison on the basis of having undergone microsurgery or endovascular intervention. The primary outcome analyzed for comparison was poor neurological outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score > 2. The secondary outcomes that were compared included retreatment rates for both therapies.
Of the 1014 patients with aSAH during the study period, 798 (79%) were confirmed to have saccular aneurysms. Neurological outcomes at ≥ 1-year follow-up did not differ between patients treated with microsurgery (n = 451) and those who received endovascular (n = 347) treatment (p = 0.51). The number of retreatments was significantly higher among patients treated endovascularly (32/347, 9%) than among patients treated microsurgically (6/451, 1%) (p < 0.001). The retreatment rate after endovascular treatment was lower in the PBRAT era (9%) than in the BRAT (18%).
Similar to results from the BRAT, results from the PBRAT era showed equivalent neurological outcomes and increased rates of retreatment among patients undergoing endovascular embolization compared with those undergoing microsurgery. However, the rate of retreatment after endovascular intervention was much lower in the PBRAT era than in the BRAT.