Ramachandra P. Tummala, Ray M. Chu and Eric S. Nussbaum
The role of cerebral revascularization remains unclear in symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease refractory to medical therapy. Despite the disappointing findings of the Cooperative Study on Extracranial–Intracranial Bypass, a subpopulation of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and poor hemodynamic reserve may benefit from extracranial–intracranial (EC–IC) bypass. The authors reviewed the records of 65 patients who underwent 71 EC–IC bypass procedures at their institution over the past 6 years.
All patients except one presented with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) that were referable to the involved vascular region. Eight patients underwent EC–IC bypass urgently for “crescendo” TIAs refractory to anti-platelet and anticoagulation therapy. Indications for surgery included cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion in 28, supraclinoid ICA stenosis in two, middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in 14, moyamoya disease in 18, and ICA dissection in three. Cerebral angiography demonstrated poor collateral flow to the involved region in each case. There were no postoperative strokes or deaths in this series. Following EC–IC bypass, the vast majority (95.4%) of patients experienced cessation of their ischemic events and stabilization of preexisting neurological dysfunction. Of the eight patients who underwent EC–IC bypass urgently for crescendo TIAs, two awoke with increased neurological deficits that improved rapidly within 24 hours of surgery.
Although the Cooperative Study failed to show benefit from this treatment modality, the authors have continued to perform EC–IC bypass in certain cases. Carefully selected individuals with occlusive cerebrovascular disease and persistent ischemic symptoms refractory to maximal medical therapy appear to benefit from cerebral revascularization.
Wouter I. Schievink, Ray M. Chu, M. Marcel Maya, J. Patrick Johnson and Hart C. M. Cohen
The goal of the study was to elucidate the spinal manifestations of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.
The authors reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of 338 consecutive patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension who were evaluated at their institution between 2001 and 2010.
Twenty patients (6%; mean age 35.8 [range 16 to 60 years]; 5 males and 15 females) had convincing signs or symptoms referable to the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots. The spinal manifestations consisted of radiculopathy in 11 patients (unilateral in 8 and bilateral in 3), myelopathy in 8 patients, and bibrachial amyotrophy in 1 patient. The cervical spine was involved in 12 patients, the thoracic spine in 5, and the lumbosacral spine in 3. The spinal symptoms were positional in only 3 patients. The spinal manifestations occurred around the time of the headache onset in 16 patients, and months to years after the positional headache had resolved in 4 patients. A large extrathecal CSF collection causing compression of the spinal cord or nerve root was responsible for the spinal manifestations in the majority of patients. Treatment of the spinal CSF leak resulted in resolution of the spinal manifestations along with the headache, except for those in the patient with bibrachial amyotrophy.
Spinal manifestations are uncommon in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, occurring in about 6% of patients, but myelopathy and radiculopathy involving all spinal segments do occur. Unlike the headache, the spinal manifestations usually are not positional and are caused by mass effect from an extradural CSF collection.
Samir Mardini, Lai-Chu See, Lun-Jou Lo, Christopher J. Salgado and Yu-Ray Chen
The authors attempt to provide a standard for volumes of the intracranial space, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in healthy control individuals by using in vivo three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomography (CT) data and to compare these data with those obtained from a group with Crouzon syndrome.
Fifty-seven individuals underwent 3D head CT scanning for nonintracranial-related disease to produce a set of normal volumes for the intracranial space, brain, and CSF. Prediction limits of 95% were obtained to provide a range of acceptable volumes throughout the growing period and early adulthood. Eleven patients (seven boys and four girls, age range 2.2 months–13.4 years) with Crouzon syndrome underwent identical measurements, which were compared with those of the control patients. The control group comprised 35 boys and 22 girls who ranged in age from 0.26 months to 24.4 years. Intracranial space and brain volume showed a progressive increase with age, with three different slopes from birth to adulthood. Male patients were found to have larger volumes than female patients in the same age group. Volume patterns for CSF were not significantly different within a given age or sex. Six patients with Crouzon syndrome had intracranial and brain volumes within the 95% prediction limit, three patients measured above the limit, and two measured below.
A standard for volumes of intracranial space and structures provides a guideline for the evaluation of patients with intracranial disease. Volumes in patients with Crouzon syndrome can be matched to their normal age- and sex-matched counterparts.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010