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Chinmaya Dash, Tejas Venkataram, Nishant Goyal, Jitender Chaturvedi, Amol Raheja, Raghav Singla, Jayesh Sardhara, and Ravi Gupta


The COVID-19 pandemic has forced medical professionals throughout the world to adapt to the changing medical scenario. The objective of this survey was to assess the change in neurosurgical training in India following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Between May 7, 2020, and May 16, 2020, a validated questionnaire was circulated among neurosurgical residents across India by social media, regarding changes in the department’s functioning, patient interaction, surgical exposure, changes in academics, and fears and apprehensions associated with the pandemic. The responses were kept anonymous and were analyzed for changes during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic.


A total of 118 residents from 29 neurosurgical training programs across 17 states/union territories of the country gave their responses to the survey questionnaire. The survey revealed that the surgical exposure of neurosurgical residents has drastically reduced since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, from an average of 39.86 surgeries performed/assisted per month (median 30) to 12.31 per month (median 10), representing a decrease of 67.50%. The number of academic sessions has fallen from a median of 5 per week to 2 per week. The survey uncovered the lack of universal guidelines and homogeneity regarding preoperative COVID-19 testing. The survey also reveals reluctance toward detailed patient examinations since the COVID-19 outbreak. The majority of respondents felt that the COVID-19 pandemic will hamper their operative and clinical skills. Fear of rescheduling or deferring of licensing examinations was significantly higher among those closest to the examination (p = 0.002).


The adverse impact of the pandemic on neurosurgical training needs to be addressed. While ensuring the safety of the residents, institutes and neurosurgical societies/bodies must take it upon themselves to ensure that their residents continue to learn and develop neurosurgical skills during these difficult times.

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Ravi Sharma, Sachin A. Borkar, Manoj Phalak, Sumit Sinha, and Ashok K. Mahapatra

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Arun Kumar Gupta, Vedula Rajani Kanth Rao, Dandu Ravi Varma, Tirur R. Kapilamoorthy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Thamburaj Krishnamoorthy, Bejoy Thomas, Narendra K. Bodhey, and Sukalyan Purkayastha


Vein of Galen malformations (VGMs) are extremely rare intracranial lesions. Clinical presentation and management strategies vary significantly in different areas of the world. The authors report their experience in evaluation, management, and long-term follow up of these lesions in India.


Between October 1983 and June 2003, 25 patients with VGMs were referred to the authors’ institution for evaluation and management. Ten children younger than 2 years of age presented with rapidly increasing head size as the chief complaint. Among 11 children 2 years of age or older, the most common presenting symptom was chronic headache. Four patients who presented during adulthood had chronic headache for many years before presentation. Angiographic evaluation of the lesion was performed in 21 patients. Fifteen patients were treated using endovascular techniques. Injection of the embolic material was performed after induction of systemic hypotension when the flow in the fistula was high.

Complete occlusion of the arteriovenous shunt could be achieved in two patients with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilation (100% of patients with this type of malformation) and in five of the six patients with the mural type of malformation (83%). Among patients with the choroidal type of malformation, complete obliteration of the shunt could be achieved in three patients. In three patients with high-flow choroidal malformations, embolization carried out in a single sitting resulted in shunt reduction of nearly 90%. These patients received clinical follow up.


The authors’ experience in evaluation and management of VGMs reveals that in areas of the world where access to dedicated specialist care is limited, the clinical presentation of VGMs can differ appreciably from the classic descriptions in the literature. Endovascular management of these lesions results in excellent angiographic and clinical results.