Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ranjodh Singh x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Ranjodh Singh, Christopher Ryan, Muhammad O. Chohan, Jamie Tisnado, Georgios F. Hadjigeorgiou and Mark H. Bilsky

Extracranial meningioma metastases (EMM) occur in 0.1% of intracranial meningioma patients and are more commonly seen in those with atypical and anaplastic histologies. While the lungs and pleura are the most common site of EMM, intraspinal and vertebral EMM also occur and are not well described in the literature. Although the presence of EMM can worsen prognosis, no standard of care has been established for EMM management.

All patients treated for recurrent atypical/anaplastic meningiomas between January 1985 and July 2014 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were screened for intraspinal and vertebral EMM. Of these patients, 2 were identified as having recurrent meningioma complicated by vertebral or intraspinal EMM. A review of the literature was also conducted. The PubMed database was screened for intraspinal and vertebral EMM cases reported in the literature from 1985 to 2015. Nineteen articles were identified from the literature and included 24 individual cases with a total of 34 vertebral or intraspinal EMM. Forty-two percent (10/24) of patients with vertebral or intraspinal EMM had WHO Grade I tumors. Furthermore, 25% (6/24) of vertebral and intraspinal EMM occurred after the primary tumor but prior to any recurrence.

This paper highlights that vertebral and intraspinal EMM can occur in patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas and can occur before tumor recurrence. This challenges the notion that EMM are seen primarily in high-grade atypical and anaplastic meningiomas.

Full access

Peter F. Morgenstern, Caitlin E. Hoffman, Gary Kocharian, Ranjodh Singh, Philip E. Stieg and Mark M. Souweidane

OBJECT

The optimal method for detecting recurrent arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children is unknown. An inherent preference exists for MR angiography (MRA) surveillance rather than arteriography. The validity of this strategy is uncertain.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric patients treated for cerebral AVMs at a single institution from 1998 to 2012. Patients with complete obliteration of the AVM nidus after treatment and more than 12 months of follow-up were included in the analysis. Data collection focused on recurrence rates, associated risk factors, and surveillance methods.

RESULTS

A total of 45 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years (range 0.5–18 years) were treated for AVMs via surgical, endovascular, radiosurgical, or combined approaches. Total AVM obliteration on posttreatment digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was confirmed in 27 patients, of whom the 20 with more than 12 months of follow-up were included in subsequent analysis. The mean follow-up duration in this cohort was 5.75 years (median 5.53 years, range 1.11–10.64 years). Recurrence occurred in 3 of 20 patients (15%). Two recurrences were detected by surveillance DSA and 1 at the time of rehemorrhage. No recurrences were detected by MRA. Median time to recurrence was 33.6 months (range 19–71 months). Two patients (10%) underwent follow-up DSA, 5 (25%) had DSA and MRI/MRA, 9 (45%) had MRI/MRA only, 1 (5%) had CT angiography only, and 3 (15%) had no imaging within the first 3 years of follow-up. After 5 years posttreatment, 2 patients (10%) were followed with MRI/MRA only, 2 (10%) with DSA only, and 10 (50%) with continued DSA and MRI/MRA.

CONCLUSIONS

AVM recurrence in children occurred at a median of 33.6 months, when MRA was more commonly used for surveillance, but failed to detect any recurrences. A recurrence rate of 15% may be an underestimate given the reliance on surveillance MRA over angiography. A new surveillance strategy is proposed, taking into account exposure to diagnostic radiation and the potential for catastrophic rehemorrhage.

Restricted access

Ranjodh Singh, Vanessa Bellat, Melinda Wang, Melanie E. Schweitzer, Y. Linda Wu, Ching-Hsuan Tung, Mark M. Souweidane and Benedict Law

OBJECTIVE

Drug clearance may be a limiting factor in the clinical application of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Peptide-based nanofibers (NFPs) have a high aspect ratio, and NFPs loaded with drugs could potentially maintain effective drug concentrations for an extended period sufficient for cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance of variable lengths of NFPs when administered using CED.

METHODS

NFPs composed of multiple methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG)-conjugated constructs (mPEG2000-KLDLKLDLKLDL-K(FITC)-CONH2, for which FITC is fluorescein isothiocyanate) were assembled in an aqueous buffer. The NFPs were approximately 5 nm in width and were formulated into different lengths: 100 nm (NFP-100), 400 nm (NFP-400), and 1000 nm (NFP-1000). The NFP surface was covalently conjugated with multiple Cy5.5 fluorophores as the optical reporters to track the post-CED distribution. Forty-two 6- to 8-week-old Ntv-a;p53fl/fl mice underwent CED to the striatum. Animals were killed immediately, 24 hours or 72 hours after CED. The brains were extracted and sectioned for assessing NFP Vd to volume of infusion (Vi) ratio, and clearance using fluorescence microscopy.

RESULTS

CED of NFPs was well tolerated by all the animals. The average Vd/Vi ratios for NFP-100, NFP-400, NFP-1000, and unconjugated positive control (free Cy5.5) were 1.87, 2.47, 1.07, and 3.0, respectively, which were statistically different (p = 0.003). The percentages remaining of the original infusion volume at 24 hours for NFP-100, -400, and -1000 were 40%, 90%, and 74%, respectively. The percentages remaining at 72 hours for NFP-100, -400, and -1000 were 15%, 30%, and 46%, respectively. Unconjugated Cy5.5 was not detected at 24 or 72 hours after CED.

CONCLUSIONS

CED of NFPs is feasible with Vd/Vi ratios and clearance rates comparable to other nanocarriers. Of the 3 NFPs, NFP-400 appears to provide the best distribution and slowest clearance after 24 hours. NFP provides a dynamic theranostic platform, with the potential to deliver clinically efficacious drug payload to brain tumor after CED.

Full access

Ranjodh Singh, William P. Cope, Zhiping Zhou, Michelle E. De Witt, John A. Boockvar and Apostolos J. Tsiouris

OBJECT

Isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) accounts for less than 1% of all cerebral infarctions. ICVT may cause irreversible parenchymal damage, rendering early and accurate diagnosis critical. This case series and literature review presents the clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with ICVT, and highlights risk factors and imaging modalities that may be most beneficial in rendering an accurate and timely diagnosis.

METHODS

Patients with CT and MRI findings consistent with ICVT examined between January 2011 and June 2014 were included in this retrospective review.

RESULTS

Seven patients (5 females, 2 males), ranging in age from 11 months to 34 years, met the inclusion criteria. The most common clinical presentations were headaches (n = 4) and seizures (n = 3). The most common comorbidities noted in these patients were hypercoagulable states (n = 4) and intracranial hypotension (n = 3). Five patients had intraparenchymal involvement. CT suggested the correct diagnosis in 4 patients, and MRI confirmed the diagnosis in all 7 patients. All patients who received anticoagulation therapy (n = 5) experienced complete resolution of their symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

The majority of these patients were adult females, consistent with published data. Seizures and headaches were the most common presenting symptoms. Hypercoagulable state and intracranial hypotension, both known risk factors for thrombosis, were the most commonly noted ICVT risk factors. Intraparenchymal involvement was prevalent in nearly all ICVT cases and presented as vasogenic edema, early intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or hemorrhagic venous infarction. Susceptibility-weighted imaging was the most sensitive imaging technique in diagnosing ICVT.

Full access

Ranjodh Singh, Zhiping Zhou, Jamie Tisnado, Sofia Haque, Kyung K. Peck, Robert J. Young, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Sunitha B. Thakur and Mark M. Souweidane

OBJECTIVE

Accurately determining diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) tumor volume is clinically important. The aims of the current study were to 1) measure DIPG volumes using methods that require different degrees of subjective judgment; and 2) evaluate interobserver agreement of measurements made using these methods.

METHODS

Eight patients from a Phase I clinical trial testing convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of a therapeutic antibody were included in the study. Pre-CED, post–radiation therapy axial T2-weighted images were analyzed using 2 methods requiring high degrees of subjective judgment (picture archiving and communication system [PACS] polygon and Volume Viewer auto-contour methods) and 1 method requiring a low degree of subjective judgment (k-means clustering segmentation) to determine tumor volumes. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated to assess interobserver agreement.

RESULTS

The CCCs of measurements made by 2 observers with the PACS polygon and the Volume Viewer auto-contour methods were 0.9465 (lower 1-sided 95% confidence limit 0.8472) and 0.7514 (lower 1-sided 95% confidence limit 0.3143), respectively. Both were considered poor agreement. The CCC of measurements made using k-means clustering segmentation was 0.9938 (lower 1-sided 95% confidence limit 0.9772), which was considered substantial strength of agreement.

CONCLUSIONS

The poor interobserver agreement of PACS polygon and Volume Viewer auto-contour methods highlighted the difficulty in consistently measuring DIPG tumor volumes using methods requiring high degrees of subjective judgment. k-means clustering segmentation, which requires a low degree of subjective judgment, showed better interobserver agreement and produced tumor volumes with delineated borders.