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Leonardo B. C. Brasiliense, Ramon Navarro, Paul Brazis and Rabih G. Tawk

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David I. Sandberg, Ramon Navarro, Josep Blanch and John Ragheb

✓ The authors report on two children in whom an anomalous posterior fossa venous drainage pattern prevented safe posterior fossa decompression. Both patients had Chiari malformation Type I, multisutural craniosynostosis, and crowded posterior fossa structures. Both patients had been treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts for hydrocephalus. Pfeiffer syndrome had been diagnosed in one of the patients, and the other was suspected to have osteogenesis imperfecta. Although both patients were believed to have symptoms resulting from brainstem compression, posterior fossa decompression was not offered due to profound venous anomalies noted on imaging studies that greatly increased the expected risks associated with surgery. These cases are presented to alert neurosurgeons to carefully evaluate the posterior fossa venous anatomy prior to considering posterior fossa decompression with or without occipitocervical fusion or calvarial vault remodeling procedures in patients with multisutural craniosynostosis.

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Ramon Navarro, Benjamin L. Brown, Alexandra Beier, Nathan Ranalli, Philipp Aldana and Ricardo A. Hanel

Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults.

The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature.

While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device.

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Ramon Navarro, Linaloe Kala, W. David Freeman, Ricardo A. Hanel and Rabih G. Tawk

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Ramon Navarro, Astrid Laguna, Carmen de Torres, Juan Cruz Cigudosa, Mariona Suñol, Ofelia Cruz and Jaume Mora

✓Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in children is usually related to cerebrovascular conditions. Brain tumors presenting with spontaneous bleeding account for approximately 10% of intracranial hemorrhages in children. The occurrence of primitive central nervous system lesions in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) not related to bone or metastatic disease is a rare condition. The authors report on a child who presented with intracranial bleeding secondary to a nonmetastatic tentorial ESFT confirmed by detection of the fusion gene EWS-ERG. A detailed review of the literature reveals that most primary intracranial ESFT had a meningeal attachment, and that almost half of them presented at diagnosis with hemorrhage. Distinguishing between ESFT and other intracranial neoplasms is essential because the treatment and prognosis differ remarkably from that of other tumors, namely central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). Whereas adjuvant treatment for ESFT consists of local or regional radiotherapy and chemotherapy containing alkylating agents, central PNETs are generally treated with whole neuraxis radiation and platinum-based chemotherapy. Additionally, the prognosis for intracranial ESFT might be better than the one for nonpineal central PNETs.