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Riyaq A. Farah, Arturo Poletti, Aaron Han, and Ramon Navarro


Osteomas of the paranasal sinuses are benign, slow-growing bone tumors that can cause a variety of clinical features depending on their size and location. Most osteomas are asymptomatic and located in the frontal sinus. In rare cases, they may grow to extend into the cranial or orbital cavities, resulting in atypical presentations. The authors presented an aggressive case of a frontoethmoidal sinus osteoma with intracranial extension of an inflammatory sinonasal polyp.


A 30-year-old man with a history of chronic sinusitis presented to the hospital after three episodes of loss of consciousness, chronic worsening of headache, and decreased sense of smell. Rhinoscopic examination showed mucosal polyps arising from the infundibulum and the superior meatus. Computed tomography showed a fibro-osseous mass in the left frontal sinus. Subsequent brain magnetic resonance imaging with and without contrast revealed a large, septated intracranial left frontal lesion approximately 6.5 cm in diameter that was compressing the underlying brain parenchyma.


Intracranial extension of frontal sinus osteomas can have dire neurological implications. Early detection of lesions obstructing the paranasal sinuses outlet could prevent intracranial extension of the disease. The surgical approach to such tumors may be endonasal, open cranial, or a combination of both.

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David I. Sandberg, Ramon Navarro, Josep Blanch, and John Ragheb

✓ The authors report on two children in whom an anomalous posterior fossa venous drainage pattern prevented safe posterior fossa decompression. Both patients had Chiari malformation Type I, multisutural craniosynostosis, and crowded posterior fossa structures. Both patients had been treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts for hydrocephalus. Pfeiffer syndrome had been diagnosed in one of the patients, and the other was suspected to have osteogenesis imperfecta. Although both patients were believed to have symptoms resulting from brainstem compression, posterior fossa decompression was not offered due to profound venous anomalies noted on imaging studies that greatly increased the expected risks associated with surgery. These cases are presented to alert neurosurgeons to carefully evaluate the posterior fossa venous anatomy prior to considering posterior fossa decompression with or without occipitocervical fusion or calvarial vault remodeling procedures in patients with multisutural craniosynostosis.

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Leonardo B. C. Brasiliense, Ramon Navarro, Paul Brazis, and Rabih G. Tawk

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Ramon Navarro, Benjamin L. Brown, Alexandra Beier, Nathan Ranalli, Philipp Aldana, and Ricardo A. Hanel

Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults.

The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature.

While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device.

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Ramon Navarro, Astrid Laguna, Carmen de Torres, Juan Cruz Cigudosa, Mariona Suñol, Ofelia Cruz, and Jaume Mora

✓Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in children is usually related to cerebrovascular conditions. Brain tumors presenting with spontaneous bleeding account for approximately 10% of intracranial hemorrhages in children. The occurrence of primitive central nervous system lesions in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) not related to bone or metastatic disease is a rare condition. The authors report on a child who presented with intracranial bleeding secondary to a nonmetastatic tentorial ESFT confirmed by detection of the fusion gene EWS-ERG. A detailed review of the literature reveals that most primary intracranial ESFT had a meningeal attachment, and that almost half of them presented at diagnosis with hemorrhage. Distinguishing between ESFT and other intracranial neoplasms is essential because the treatment and prognosis differ remarkably from that of other tumors, namely central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). Whereas adjuvant treatment for ESFT consists of local or regional radiotherapy and chemotherapy containing alkylating agents, central PNETs are generally treated with whole neuraxis radiation and platinum-based chemotherapy. Additionally, the prognosis for intracranial ESFT might be better than the one for nonpineal central PNETs.

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Ricardo A. Domingo, Gaetano De Biase, Ramon Navarro, Jaime L. Martinez Santos, Gabriella A. Rivas, Vivek Gupta, David Miller, Bernard R. Bendok, Waleed Brinjikji, W. Christopher Fox, Thien J. Huynh, and Rabih G. Tawk


Available data on management of sacral arteriovenous fistulas (sAVFs) are limited to individual case reports and small series. Management includes observation, endovascular embolization, or surgical ligation, with no clear guidelines on the optimal treatment modality. The authors’ objective was to report their multiinstitutional experience with management of sAVF patients, including clinical and radiographic characteristics and postprocedural outcomes.


The electronic medical records of patients with a diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula treated from January 2004 to December 2019 at the authors’ institutions were reviewed, and data were summarized using descriptive statistics, including percentage and count for categorical data, median as a measure of central tendency for continuous variables, and interquartile range (IQR) as a measure of dispersion.


A total of 26 patients with sAVFs were included. The median (IQR) age was 65 (57–73) years, and 73% (n = 19) of patients were male. Lower-extremity weakness was the most common presenting symptom (n = 24 [92%]), and half the patients (n = 13 [50%]) reported bowel and bladder sphincter dysfunction. The median (IQR) time from symptom onset to treatment was 12 (5.25–26.25) months. Radiographically, all patients had T2 hyperintensity at the level of the conus medullaris (CM) (n = 26 [100%]). Intradural flow voids were identified in 85% (n = 22) of patients. The majority of the lesions had a single identifiable arterial feeder (n = 19 [73%]). The fistula was located most commonly at the S1 level (n = 13 [50%]). The site where the draining vein connects to the pial venous plexus was seen predominantly at the lumbar level (n = 16 [62%]). In total, 29 procedures were performed: 10 open surgeries and 19 endovascular embolization procedures. Complete occlusion was achieved in 90% (n = 9) of patients after open surgery and 79% (n = 15) after endovascular embolization. Motor improvement was seen in 68% of patients (n = 15), and bladder and bowel function improved in 9 patients (41%). At last follow-up, 73% (n = 16) of patients had either resolution or improvement of the pretreatment intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity.


T2 hyperintensity of the CM and a dilated filum terminale vein are consistent radiographic signs of sAVF, and delayed presentation is common. Complete occlusion was achieved in almost all patients after surgery, and endovascular embolization was effective in 70% of the patients. Further studies are needed to determine the best treatment modality based on case-specific characteristics.

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Ramon Navarro, Linaloe Kala, W. David Freeman, Ricardo A. Hanel, and Rabih G. Tawk