Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
Gregory J. Zipfel and Ralph G. Dacey
Over the past decade, several factors have led to a dramatic change in the manner in which patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms are diagnosed and treated. These factors include the increased use of noninvasive imaging modalities for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms, publication of new natural history data detailing the hemorrhage risks associated with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and the broad application of endovascular therapy for their treatment. With these new technologies and new natural history data has come considerable uncertainty about the optimal treatment strategy for patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. In this light, it seems prudent to review periodically and examine critically all recent data pertaining to the natural history and treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, in an effort to provide a scientific update on which management recommendations can be based. This review article represents the authors' attempt at such an update, and it is their hope that members of the community of neurovascular surgeons might find this information helpful during their continuing efforts to provide optimal care for their patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms.
Dennis J. Rivet and Ralph G. Dacey
Masakazu Takayasu and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
✓ An isolated cerebral arteriole preparation was used to test the hypothesis that a temporary reduction in transmural pressure causes a subsequent vasodilation mediated by mechanisms intrinsic to the vessel wall. Thirty-five cerebral vessels of 44.7 ± 1.4 µm (± standard error of the mean) mean diameter were cannulated in vitro and pressurized at a transmural pressure of 60 mm Hg; after an equilibration period the vessels developed spontaneous tone. When transmural pressure was decreased to 0 mm Hg for a period of 4 minutes then returned to 60 mm Hg, vessels dilated to 155.1% ± 6.8% of control diameter before gradually redeveloping spontaneous tone in 5.5 ± 0.7 minutes. Varying the duration of the period during which transmural pressure was at 0 mm Hg had no significant effect on the degree of vasodilation. Conversely, varying the level of decreased transmural pressure between 0 and 20 mm Hg significantly affected both the magnitude of vasodilation and the time course of spontaneous tone recovery. These findings indicate that a temporary period of decreased transmural pressure may result in a loss of spontaneous tone in the resistance vessels of the cerebral microcirculation. Mechanisms intrinsic to the vessel wall may play a significant role in the early stage of post-reperfusion hyperemia. Such mechanisms could also be implicated in other hyperemic phenomena affecting the cerebral circulation, such as the rapid increase in intracranial pressure after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the development of the normal perfusion pressure breakthrough phenomenon, and the initiation of intracranial pressure plateau waves.
Dennis G. Vollmer, Masakazu Takayasu, and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
✓ The reactivity of rabbit basilar artery and penetrating arteriolar microvessels was studied in vitro using an isometric-tension measurement technique and an isolated perfused arteriole preparation, respectively. Comparisons were made between reactivities of normal vessels and those obtained from animals subjected to experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 3 days prior to examination. Subarachnoid hemorrhage produced significant increases in basilar artery contraction in response to increasing concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) (10−9 to 10−5 M) and prostaglandin F2α (10−9 to 10−5 M) when compared to normal arteries. In addition, SAH attenuated the relaxing effect of acetylcholine following serotonin-induced contraction and of adenosine triphosphate after KCl-induced basilar artery contractions. In contrast to the changes observed in large arteries, cerebral microvessels did not demonstrate significant differences in spontaneous tone or in reactivity to a number of vasoactive stimuli including application of calcium, serotonin, and acetylcholine. On the other hand, small but significant changes in arteriolar responsiveness to changes in extraluminal pH and to application of KCl were noted.
Findings from this study suggest that intracerebral resistance vessels of the cerebral microcirculation are not greatly affected by the presence of subarachnoid clot, in contrast to the large arteries in the basal subarachnoid space. The small changes that do occur are qualitatively different from those observed for large arteries. These findings are consistent with the observation of significant therapeutic benefit with the use of calcium channel blockers without changes in angiographically visible vasospasm in large vessels. It is likely, therefore, that calcium antagonists may act to decrease total cerebrovascular resistance at the level of the relatively unaffected microcirculation after SAH without changing large vessel diameter.
Yasukazu Kajita, Hans H. Dietrich, and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
✓ After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), cerebral arteries display impaired vasomotor control, resulting in decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Recently, propagation of vasomotor responses has been recognized as an important regulatory mechanism in microcirculation. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) inhibits the vasodilatory effect of chemical mediators such as adenosine and adenine nucleotides at a local and/or propagated site.
Penetrating intracerebral arterioles were surgically isolated from the middle cerebral arteries of rat brains, cannulated, and observed videomicroscopically in an organ bath under an inverted microscope. The effects of 10−5 M OxyHb on vasoactive responses to adenosine, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were examined. The drugs were extraluminally applied either to the bath (10−10−10−3 M) or, using pressure microejection (pipette concentration 10−2 M), locally.
The ATP and ADP initially constricted and then significantly dilated the vessels after both extraluminal application and microapplication. Furthermore, local microstimulation by these drugs produced conducted vasodilation. Adenosine elicited significant vasodilation after both extraluminal and local stimulation. Again, conducted vasodilation was observed. The vasomotor responses that were induced by a maximum local stimulation corresponded in magnitude to those observed at bath concentrations of 10−5 to 10−4 M of the same drug.
Pretreatment with OxyHb constricted arterioles to an average of 87% of control and blunted extraluminally induced dilation at low concentrations (10−10−10−8) of ATP and ADP, but did not affect vasodilation induced by 10−4 M or greater concentrations of ATP, ADP, or adenosine. Although the local response to local microstimulation was unaltered, propagated vasodilation as a response to ATP, ADP, and adenosine was significantly attenuated by OxyHb.
These findings indicate that vasodilatory propagation plays an important role in the regulation of brain microcirculation and that its impairment by OxyHb could, in part, explain the cerebral hypoperfusion that is observed after SAH.
Ralph G. Dacey Jr., David Pitkethly, and H. Richard Winn
✓ The management of intracranial aneurysms in elderly patients remains controversial, since the natural history of these lesions is not well understood. The authors describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with documented enlargement of an internal carotid artery aneurysm over 3 years. The management of intracranial aneurysms in elderly patients is discussed.
Michael R. Chicoine, Alexander T. Yahanda, and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
Donald Simpson (1927–2018) was a neurosurgeon from Adelaide, Australia, who is often cited for the 1957 publication he wrote as a trainee on the relationship between extent of resection and outcomes for meningiomas. That paper summarized a series of over 300 patients operated on in England by well-known neurosurgeons Sir Hugh Cairns and Joseph Buford Pennybacker. Simpson was also known later in his career, when he was at the University of Adelaide in South Australia, for his contributions to the areas of hydrocephalus, spina bifida, craniofacial anomalies, head injury, brain abscesses, and neurosurgical history, and he published extensively on these topics. In addition to his work in clinical neurosurgery, Simpson made humanitarian contributions studying kuru in New Guinea and aiding refugees during the Vietnam War. Simpson was an active member and leader of many Australian surgical organizations and was an officer of the Order of Australia. Donald Simpson’s legacy as an adult and pediatric neurosurgeon, an academician, a leader, and a humanitarian is extensive and will prove long lasting. Professor Simpson’s life serves as an example from which all neurosurgeons may learn.
S. Kathleen Bandt and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.
The authors propose a novel bibilometric index, the reverberation index (r-index), as a comparative assessment tool for use in determining differential reverberation between scientific fields for a given scientific entity. Conversely, this may allow comparison of 2 similar scientific entities within a single scientific field. This index is calculated using a relatively simple 3-step process.
Briefly, Thompson Reuters' Web of Science is used to produce a citation report for a unique search parameter (this may be an author, journal article, or topical key word). From this citation report, a list of citing journals is retrieved from which a weighted ratio of citation patterns across journals can be calculated. This r-index is then used to compare the reverberation of the original search parameter across different fields of study or wherever a comparison is required.
The advantage of this novel tool is its ability to transcend a specific component of the scientific process. This affords application to a diverse range of entities, including an author, a journal article, or a topical key word, for effective comparison of that entity's reverberation within a scientific arena. The authors introduce the context for and applications of the r-index, emphasizing neurosurgical topics and journals for illustration purposes. It should be kept in mind, however, that the r-index is readily applicable across all fields of study.