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Open access

Joao Paulo Almeida, Zachary Cappello, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Pablo F. Recinos, Raj Sindwani, and Varun R. Kshettry

Petroclival chondrosarcomas are a formidable surgical challenge given the close relationship to critical neurovascular structures. The endoscopic endonasal approach can be utilized for many petroclival chondrosarcomas. However, tumors that extend to the inferior petrous apex require working behind the internal carotid artery (ICA). We present a case of a 33-year-old with a 1-year history of complete abducens palsy, with imaging showing an enhancing mass centered at the left petroclival fissure and inferior petrous apex behind the paraclival carotid artery and extending down into the nasopharynx abutting the cervical ICA. In this video, we describe the surgical steps of the endoscopic endonasal translacerum approach with ICA skeletonization and mobilization. We also highlight the relevant surgical anatomy with anatomical dissections to supplement the surgical video. The patient did well without complications. Postoperative MRI demonstrated complete resection and pathology revealed grade II chondrosarcoma. He underwent adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy.

The video can be found here:

Free access

Danielle F. Eytan, Varun R. Kshettry, Raj Sindwani, Troy D. Woodard, and Pablo F. Recinos


Endoscopic endonasal treatment of petrous apex cholesterol granulomas allows for a natural drainage pathway into the nasopharynx. Because of the limited number of case series in the literature, there is limited evidence of recurrence rates and outcomes following endoscopic endonasal management. The purpose of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes of endoscopic endonasal approaches in the treatment of cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex.


A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed for articles published from January 1980 to April 2014 to identify all studies reporting outcomes for endoscopic endonasal surgical management of cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex. Operative approach, use of a stent, symptom outcome, restenosis, cyst recurrence, reoperation, and complications were extracted from included studies.


A total of 53 patient cases were included from 22 relevant studies. The mean age was 41 years, and 26 patients (49%) were female. Stents were used in 45.1% of cases. Symptom resolution or improvement was seen in 98.6% of cases at follow-up (mean follow-up 20 months). Complications were reported in 13.2% of cases, with the most common complication being epistaxis. Restenosis on follow-up office endoscopic examination occurred in 9 of 45 cases (20.0%). Only 4 of these restenosis cases resulted in symptomatic cyst recurrence, resulting in an overall recurrence rate of 7.5%. The mean time from surgery to cyst recurrence was 13.5 months. The rate of symptomatic cyst recurrence was 10.7% in cases without the use of a stent compared with 4.3% in cases with stent placement (p = 0.6).


Based on current literature, endoscopic endonasal approaches result in a high rate of symptom improvement or resolution. Complication rates are lower than prior case series that have utilized open approaches. Asymptomatic restenosis can be managed conservatively, since it is associated with symptomatic cyst recurrence less than half of the time. This study revealed a nonsignificant trend toward a decrease in symptomatic cyst recurrence when a stent was used, but further work is needed to clarify its impact.

Open access

Joao Paulo Almeida, Dennis Tang, Varun R. Kshettry, Raj Sindwani, and Pablo F. Recinos

This is the case of a 25-year-old woman who had had a previous rupture of a dermoid cyst and now presented with recent MRI scans suggesting further growth of her dermoid cyst. Her lesion was located in the suprasellar space and extended into the interpeduncular fossa and prepontine cistern. Considering the location of the tumor, an endoscopic pituitary hemitransposition was selected for its resection. In this video we present the technical nuances and illustrate the anatomy used for an endoscopic endonasal pituitary hemitransposition for resection of a suprasellar dermoid cyst with extension into the interpeduncular fossa. In this case, a near-total resection was achieved, with no complications and no additional hormonal deficit after surgery.

The video can be found here:

Full access

Min Lang, Danilo Silva, Lu Dai, Varun R. Kshettry, Troy D. Woodard, Raj Sindwani, and Pablo F. Recinos


Preoperatively determining the extent of parasellar invasion of pituitary macroadenomas is useful for surgical planning and patient counseling. Here, the authors compared constructive interference in steady state (CISS), a T2-weighted gradient-echo MRI sequence, to volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), a T1-weighted gradient-echo MRI sequence, for evaluation of cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) by pituitary macroadenomas.


VIBE and CISS images of 98 patients with pituitary macroadenoma were retrospectively analyzed and graded using the modified Knosp classification. The Knosp grades were correlated to surgical findings of CSI, which were determined intraoperatively using 0° and 30° endoscopes. The predictive accuracies for CSI according to the Knosp grades derived from the CISS and VIBE images were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Postoperative MRI was used to evaluate the gross-total resection (GTR) rates.


The CSI rate by pituitary macroadenomas was 27.6% (27 of 98 cases). Of 196 assessments (left and right sides of 98 macroadenomas), 45 (23.0%) had different Knosp grades when scored using VIBE versus CISS images. For the VIBE images, 0% of Knosp grade 0, 4.5% of grade 1, 23.8% of grade 2, 42.1% of grade 3A, 100% of grade 3B, and 83.3% of grade 4 macroadenomas were found to have CSI intraoperatively. For the CISS images, 0% of Knosp grade 0, 2.1% of grade 1, 31.3% of grade 2, 56.3% of grade 3A, 100% of grade 3B, and 100% of grade 4 macroadenomas were found to have CSI intraoperatively. Two pituitary macroadenomas were classified as grade 4 on VIBE sequences but grades 3A and 2 on CISS sequences; CSI was not observed intraoperatively in both cases. The GTR rate was 64.3% and 60.0% for high-grade (3A, 3B, and 4) macroadenomas classified using VIBE and CISS sequences, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.94 and 0.97 for VIBE- and CISS-derived Knosp grades (p = 0.007), respectively.


Knosp grades determined using CISS sequence images are better correlated with intraoperative CSI than those determined using VIBE sequence images. CISS sequences may be valuable for the preoperative assessment of pituitary macroadenomas.