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Rafael Martinez-Perez, David M. Pelz, and Stephen P. Lownie

The objective of this paper was to report a rare complication of basilar artery (BA) tourniquet treatment of a giant basilar tip aneurysm, and to discuss possible causes for the formation of a de novo giant posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. A 34-year-old woman underwent satisfactory treatment of a ruptured giant basilar bifurcation aneurysm by BA ligation (Drake tourniquet) in 1985. She presented 25 years later with a new aneurysm in the left PCA, successfully treated by coil embolization. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of de novo aneurysm formation on a PCA, and the first de novo aneurysm reported as a complication of BA ligation therapy by Drake tourniquet. Long-term follow-up is necessary in patients with treated cerebral aneurysms, particularly those occurring in young patients, those with multiple aneurysms, those with complex posterior circulation aneurysms, and those undergoing flow diversion or flow-altering therapies.

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Rafael Martínez-Pérez, Thiago Albonette-Felicio, Douglas A. Hardesty, and Daniel M. Prevedello

OBJECTIVE

Keyhole approaches, namely the minipterional approach (MPTa) and the supraorbital approach (SOa), are alternatives to the standard pterional approach to treat lesions located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae. Despite their increasing popularity and acceptance, the indications and limitations of these approaches require further assessment. The purpose of the present study was to determine the differences in the area of surgical exposure and surgical maneuverability provided by the MPTa and SOa.

METHODS

The areas of surgical exposure afforded by the MPTa and SOa were analyzed in 12 sides of cadaver heads by using a microscope and a neuronavigation system. The area of exposure of the region of interest and surgical freedom (maneuverability) of each approach were calculated.

RESULTS

The area of exposure was significantly larger in the MPTa than in the SOa (1250 ± 223 mm2 vs 939 ± 139 mm2, p = 0.002). The MPTa provided larger areas of exposure in the ipsilateral and midline compartments, whereas there was no significant difference in the area of exposure in the contralateral compartment. All targets in the anterior circulation had significantly larger areas of surgical freedom when treated via the MPTa versus the SOa.

CONCLUSIONS

The MPTa provides greater surgical exposure and better maneuverability than that offered by the SOa. The SOa may be advantageous as a direct corridor for treating lesions located in the contralateral side or in the anterior cranial fossa, but the surgical exposure provided in the midline region is inferior to that exposed by the MPTa.

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Rafael Martínez-Pérez, Thiago Albonette-Felicio, Douglas A. Hardesty, and Daniel M. Prevedello

OBJECTIVE

Keyhole approaches, namely the minipterional approach (MPTa) and the supraorbital approach (SOa), are alternatives to the standard pterional approach to treat lesions located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae. Despite their increasing popularity and acceptance, the indications and limitations of these approaches require further assessment. The purpose of the present study was to determine the differences in the area of surgical exposure and surgical maneuverability provided by the MPTa and SOa.

METHODS

The areas of surgical exposure afforded by the MPTa and SOa were analyzed in 12 sides of cadaver heads by using a microscope and a neuronavigation system. The area of exposure of the region of interest and surgical freedom (maneuverability) of each approach were calculated.

RESULTS

The area of exposure was significantly larger in the MPTa than in the SOa (1250 ± 223 mm2 vs 939 ± 139 mm2, p = 0.002). The MPTa provided larger areas of exposure in the ipsilateral and midline compartments, whereas there was no significant difference in the area of exposure in the contralateral compartment. All targets in the anterior circulation had significantly larger areas of surgical freedom when treated via the MPTa versus the SOa.

CONCLUSIONS

The MPTa provides greater surgical exposure and better maneuverability than that offered by the SOa. The SOa may be advantageous as a direct corridor for treating lesions located in the contralateral side or in the anterior cranial fossa, but the surgical exposure provided in the midline region is inferior to that exposed by the MPTa.

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Rafael Martinez-Perez, Guru Dutta-Satyarthee, Ezequiel García-Ballestas, Amit Agrawal, and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

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Orlin Pavlov, Rafael Martinez-Perez, Amit Agrawal, Ezequiel Garcia-Ballestas, and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Open access

Mostafa Shahein, Thiago Albonette-Felicio, Giuliano Silveira-Bertazzo, Rafael Martinez-Perez, Marcus Zachariah, Ricardo L. Carrau, and Daniel M. Prevedello

Chordomas are rare tumors that occur at an incidence rate of 0.8 per 100,000. Thirty-five percent of chordomas occur in the spheno-occipital region. We present a case of a clival chordoma that had severe brainstem compression. The patient had a 1-year history of slurred speech and left facial weakness (House-Brackmann 3). The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach gave a panoramic view of the region without the necessity of brain retraction or manipulation of the surrounding cranial nerves. Gross-total resection was achieved and no CSF leak was encountered postoperatively. The left facial weakness improved to House-Brackmann 1.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/DzW9Q6ckTHw.

Open access

Rafael Martínez-Pérez, Marcus Zachariah, Ruychen Li, Giuliano Silveira-Bertazzo, Ricardo L. Carrau, and Daniel M. Prevedello

Atypical trigeminal schwannomas (ATSs) are notorious for their ability to invade the skull base. An expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (eEEA) provides direct access to the tumor with no need for cerebral retraction or manipulation of neurovascular structures. Herein, we present a case of a large temporal fossa extradural lesion with secondary invasion of the sella, clivus, and temporal and infratemporal fossae in a 49-year-old male with severe vision loss. A transpterygoid transmaxillary approach was performed. Gross-total removal was achieved and pathology revealed the diagnosis of ATS. Visual function fully recovered in the right side and the patient has been uneventfully followed since surgery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/6pSwdYsN9hk.

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

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Takuma Hara, Marcus A. Zachariah, Ruichun Li, Rafael Martinez-Perez, Ricardo L. Carrau, and Daniel M. Prevedello

OBJECTIVE

Aerosol-generating procedures, including endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), are a major risk for physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Techniques for reducing aerosolization and risk of transmission of COVID-19 during these procedures would be valuable to the neurosurgical community. The authors aimed to simulate the generation of small-particle aerosols during EES and craniectomy in order to develop methods to reduce the spread of aerosolized particles, and to test the effectiveness of these methods.

METHODS

This study was performed at the Anatomical Laboratory for Visuospatial Innovations in Otolaryngology and Neurosurgery at The Ohio State University. The following two scenarios were used to measure three different particle sizes (0.3, 2.5, and 10 µm) generated: 1) drilling frontotemporal bone, simulating a craniectomy; and 2) drilling sphenoid bone, simulating an endonasal approach. A suction mask device was created with the aim of reducing particle release. The presence of particles was measured without suction, with a single Frazier tip suction in the field, and with the suction mask device in addition to the Frazier suction tip. Particles were measured 12 cm from the craniectomy or endonasal drilling region.

RESULTS

In the absence of any aerosol-reducing devices, the number of particles measured during craniectomy was significantly higher than that generated by endonasal drilling. This was true regardless of the particle size measured (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; 2.5 µm, p < 0.001; and 10 µm, p < 0.001). The suction mask device reduced the release of particles of all sizes measured in the craniectomy simulation (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; 2.5 µm, p < 0.001; and 10 µm, p < 0.001) and particles of 0.3 µm and 2.5 µm in the single Frazier suction simulation (0.3 µm, p = 0.031; and 2.5 µm, p = 0.026). The suction mask device further reduced the release of particles of all sizes during EES simulation (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; and 2.5 µm, p < 0.001) and particles of 0.3 µm and 2.5 µm in the single Frazier suction simulation (0.3 µm, p = 0.033; and 2.5 µm, p = 0.048). Large particles (10 µm) were not detected during EES.

CONCLUSIONS

The suction mask device is a simple and effective means of reducing aerosol release during EES, and it could potentially be used during mastoidectomies. This could be a valuable tool to reduce the risk of procedure-associated viral transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic.