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Erratum

Anatomy of the lateral intermuscular septum of the arm and its relationships to the radial nerve and its proximal branches

R. Shane Tubbs

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R. Shane Tubbs and W. Jerry Oakes

✓The authors present a case of an adolescent with achondroplasia and symptoms of neurogenic claudication who, interestingly, also presented with intermittent priapism. Both the neurogenic claudication and priapism were relieved following a thoracolumbar laminectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dwarf with thoracolumbar spinal canal stenosis presenting with priapism.

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R. Shane Tubbs and W. Jerry Oakes

✓The authors present the case of a child diagnosed as having Beckwith—Wiedemann syndrome and Chiari I malformation. Hemihypertrophy is associated with Beckwith—Wiedemann syndrome and has been described in conjunction with Chiari I malformation. The authors hypothesize that the hemihypertrophy that may involve the skull base and Chiari I malformation found in their patient are not spurious findings but are pathologically related, perhaps by slight dysmorphologies of the posterior cranial fossa.

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M. Cem Bozkurt

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R. Shane Tubbs and W. Jerry Oakes

Object. The cisternal portion of the trochlear nerve (fourth cranial nerve) can easily be injured during intracranial surgical operations. To help minimize the chance of such injury by promoting a thorough understanding of the anatomy of this nerve and its relationships to surrounding structures, the authors present this anatomical study.

Methods. In this study, in which 12 cadaveric heads (24 sides) were used, the authors describe exact distances between the trochlear nerve and various surrounding structures. Also described are relatively safe areas in which to manipulate or enter the tentorium, and these are referenced to external landmarks.

Conclusions. This information will prove useful in planning and executing surgical procedures in and around the free edge of the tentorium cerebelli.

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R. Shane Tubbs and W. Jerry Oakes

✓Self-mutilation after deafferentation injuries has rarely been reported in humans. The authors report on a 16-year-old girl who was born with a myelomeningocele. In adolescence it was noted that concurrent with her spinal cord becoming symptomatically tethered she began to self-mutilate her digits. A rare manifestation of the tethered spinal cord may be dysesthesias that led to self-mutilation.

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John C. Wellons III and R. Shane Tubbs

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R. Shane Tubbs and W. Jerry Oakes

✓Self-mutilation after deafferentation injuries has rarely been reported in humans. The authors report on a 16-year-old girl who was born with a myelomeningocele. In adolescence it was noted that concurrent with her spinal cord becoming symptomatically tethered she began to self-mutilate her digits. A rare manifestation of the tethered spinal cord may be dysesthesias that led to self-mutilation.

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Thomas J. Wilson, R. Shane Tubbs and Lynda J. S. Yang

OBJECTIVE

The authors hypothesized that when the anatomical variant of an anconeus epitrochlearis is present, the risk of developing cubital tunnel syndrome would be reduced by replacing the normal roof of the cubital tunnel (Osborne's ligament) with a more forgiving muscular structure, the anconeus epitrochlearis. The authors further hypothesized that when the presence of an anconeus epitrochlearis contributes to ulnar neuropathy, it would be secondary to muscular hypertrophy, thereby making it more likely to occur in the dominant arm. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate these hypotheses.

METHODS

This retrospective cohort study was performed by reviewing the records of all adult patients who underwent operative intervention for cubital tunnel syndrome between 2005 and 2014 as the experimental group and all asymptomatic patients in the medical literature who were part of a series reporting the prevalence of an anconeus epitrochlearis as the control group. The primary outcome of interest was the presence of an anconeus epitrochlearis in asymptomatic individuals versus patients with cubital tunnel syndrome.

RESULTS

During the study period, 168 patients underwent decompression of the ulnar nerve for cubital tunnel syndrome, and an anconeus epitrochlearis was found at surgery in 9 (5.4%) patients. The control group consisted of 634 asymptomatic patients from the medical literature, and an anconeus epitrochlearis was present in 98 (15.5%) of these patients. An anconeus epitrochlearis was present significantly less frequently in the symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic individuals (p < 0.001). Among patients undergoing surgical decompression, an anconeus epitrochlearis was associated with symptoms in the dominant arm (p = 0.037).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that an anconeus epitrochlearis was present significantly less often in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome than in asymptomatic controls. The mechanism of protection may be that this muscle decreases the rigidity of the entrance into the cubital tunnel. When an anconeus epitrochlearis does contribute to cubital tunnel syndrome, it is significantly more likely to occur in the dominant arm, possibly due to repetitive use and hypertrophy of the anconeus epitrochlearis. The presence of an anconeus epitrochlearis may be protective against the development of cubital tunnel syndrome, although this is a preliminary finding.

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