Authors of this report describe a Fukushima Type D(b) or Kawase Type ME2 trigeminal schwannoma involving the right maxillary division in a 59-year-old woman who presented with intermittent right-sided facial numbness and pain. This tumor was successfully resected via a right lateral orbitotomy without the need for craniotomy. This novel approach to a lesion of this type has not yet been described in the scientific literature. The outcome in this case was good, and the patient's intra- and postoperative courses proceeded without complication. The epidemiology of trigeminal schwannomas and some technical aspects of lateral orbitotomy, including potential advantages of this approach over traditional transcranial as well as fully endoscopic dissections in appropriately selected cases, are also briefly discussed.
Lateral orbitotomy for a maxillary nerve schwannoma: case report
Scott A. Wallace, R. Michael Meyer, Michael J. Cirivello, and Raymond I. Cho
Introduction. Ankylosing spondylitis
Doniel Drazin, J. Patrick Johnson, Tiffany Perry, Michael Y. Wang, Jens R. Chapman, and Bernhard Meyer
Giant intracranial aneurysm and fibromuscular dysplasia in an adolescent with α1-antitrypsin deficiency
Wouter I. Schievink, Michael R. Puumala, Fredric B. Meyer, Corey Raffel, Jerry A. Katzmann, and Joseph E. Parisi
✓ Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency of α1-antitrypsin may be a genetic risk factor for the development of intracranial aneurysms and arterial fibromuscular dysplasia. The authors report a 16-year-old girl with a history of lung disease who suffered a cerebral hemorrhage due to the rupture of a giant intracranial aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery. This fusiform aneurysm was associated with fibromuscular dysplasia of the intimal type. She was found to have an unusual α1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiMP phenotype). This case provides further evidence of an underlying arteriopathy in α1-antitrypsin deficiency.
Early venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis in combat-related penetrating brain injury
R. Michael Meyer, M. Benjamin Larkin, Nicholas S. Szuflita, Chris J. Neal, Jeffrey M. Tomlin, Rocco A. Armonda, Jeffrey A. Bailey, and Randy S. Bell
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is independently associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Given the numerous studies of civilian closed-head injury, the Brain Trauma Foundation recommends venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis (VTC) after severe TBI. No studies have specifically examined this practice in penetrating brain injury (PBI). Therefore, the authors examined the safety and effectiveness of early VTC after PBI with respect to worsening intracranial hemorrhage and DVT or PE.
The Kandahar Airfield neurosurgery service managed 908 consults between January 2010 and March 2013. Eighty of these were US active duty members with PBI, 13 of whom were excluded from analysis because they presented with frankly nonsurvivable CNS injury or they died during initial resuscitation. This is a retrospective analysis of the remaining 67 patients.
Thirty-two patients received early VTC and 35 did not. Mean time to the first dose was 24 hours. Fifty-two patients had blast-related PBI and 15 had gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head. The incidence of worsened intracranial hemorrhage was 16% after early VTC and 17% when it was not given, with the relative risk approaching 1 (RR = 0.91). The incidence of DVT or PE was 12% after early VTC and 17% when it was not given (RR = 0.73), though this difference was not statistically significant.
Early VTC was safe with regard to the progression of intracranial hemorrhage in this cohort of combat-related PBI patients. Data in this study suggest that this intervention may have been effective for the prevention of DVT or PE but not statistically significantly so. More research is needed to clarify the safety and efficacy of this practice.
Tumors of the Insula
Two-year mortality and functional outcomes in combat-related penetrating brain injury: battlefield through rehabilitation
M. Benjamin Larkin, Erin K. M. Graves, Jason H. Boulter, Nicholas S. Szuflita, R. Michael Meyer, Michael E. Porambo, John J. Delaney, and Randy S. Bell
There are limited data concerning the long-term functional outcomes of patients with penetrating brain injury. Reports from civilian cohorts are small because of the high reported mortality rates (as high as 90%). Data from military populations suggest a better prognosis for penetrating brain injury, but previous reports are hampered by analyses that exclude the point of injury. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the long-term functional outcomes of those who sustain a combat-related penetrating brain injury (from the initial point of injury to 24 months afterward).
This study is a retrospective review of cases of penetrating brain injury in patients who presented to the Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to March 2013. The primary outcome of interest was Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at 6, 12, and 24 months from date of injury.
A total of 908 cases required neurosurgical consultation during the study period, and 80 of these cases involved US service members with penetrating brain injury. The mean admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 8.5 (SD 5.56), and the mean admission Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 26.6 (SD 10.2). The GOS score for the cohort trended toward improvement at each time point (3.6 at 6 months, 3.96 at 24 months, p > 0.05). In subgroup analysis, admission GCS score ≤ 5, gunshot wound as the injury mechanism, admission ISS ≥ 26, and brain herniation on admission CT head were all associated with worse GOS scores at all time points. Excluding those who died, functional improvement occurred regardless of admission GCS score (p < 0.05). The overall mortality rate for the cohort was 21%.
Good functional outcomes were achieved in this population of severe penetrating brain injury in those who survived their initial resuscitation. The mortality rate was lower than observed in civilian cohorts.
Cerebral aneurysms in childhood and adolescence
Fredric B. Meyer, Thoralf M. Sundt Jr., Nicolee C. Fode, Michael K. Morgan, Glen S. Forbes, and James F. Mellinger
✓ In this study, 24 aneurysms occurring in 23 patients under the age of 18 years (mean 12 years) are analyzed. The male:female ratio was 2.8:1, and the youngest patient was 3 months old. Mycotic lesions and those associated with other vascular malformations were excluded. Forty-two percent of the aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation, and 54% were giant aneurysms. Presenting symptoms included subarachnoid hemorrhage in 13 and mass effect in 11. Several of these aneurysms were documented to rapidly increase in size over a 3-month to 2-year period of observation. All aneurysms were surgically treated: direct clipping was performed in 14; trapping with bypass in four; trapping alone in four; and direct excision with end-to-end anastomosis in two. The postoperative results were excellent in 21 aneurysms (87%), good in two (8%), and poor in one. The pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms is reviewed.
The Kempe incision for decompressive craniectomy, craniotomy, and cranioplasty in traumatic brain injury and stroke
Isaac Josh Abecassis, Christopher C. Young, David J. Caldwell, Abdullah H. Feroze, John R. Williams, R. Michael Meyer, Ryan T. Kellogg, Robert H. Bonow, and Randall M. Chesnut
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an effective, lifesaving option for reducing intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and other pathologies with elevated ICP. Most DCs are performed via a standard trauma flap shaped like a reverse question mark (RQM), which requires sacrificing the occipital and posterior auricular arteries and can be complicated by wound dehiscence and infections. The Ludwig Kempe hemispherectomy incision (Kempe) entails a T-shaped incision, one limb from the midline behind the hairline to the inion and the other limb from the root of the zygoma to the coronal suture. The authors’ objective in this study was to define their implementation of the Kempe incision for DC and craniotomy, report clinical outcomes, and quantify the volume of bone removed compared with the RQM incision.
A retrospective review of a single-surgeon experience with DC in TBI and stroke was performed. Patient demographics, imaging, and outcomes were collected for all DCs from 2015 to 2020, and the incisions were categorized as either Kempe or RQM. Preoperative and postoperative CT scans were obtained and processed using a combination of automatic segmentation (in Python and SimpleITK) with manual cleanup and further subselection in ITK-SNAP. The volume of bone removed was quantified, and the primary outcome was percentage of hemicranium removed. Postoperative surgical wound infections, estimated blood loss (EBL), and length of surgery were compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Cranioplasty data were collected.
One hundred thirty-six patients were included in the analysis; there were 57 patients in the craniotomy group (44 patients with RQM incisions and 13 with Kempe incisions) and 79 in the craniectomy group (41 patients with RQM incisions and 38 Kempe incisions). The mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 251 ± 368 days. There was a difference in the amount of decompression between approaches in multivariate modeling (39% ± 11% of the hemicranium was removed via the Kempe incision vs 34% ± 10% via the RQM incision, p = 0.047), although this did not achieve significance in multivariate modeling. Wound infection rates, EBL, and length of surgery were comparable between the two incision types. No wound infections in either cohort were due to wound dehiscence. Cranioplasty outcomes were comparable between the two incision types.
The Kempe incision for craniectomy or craniotomy is a safe, feasible, and effective alternative to the RQM. The authors advocate the Kempe incision in cases in which contralateral operative pathology or subsequent craniofacial/skull base repair is anticipated.
A comparison of computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography for the diagnosis of penetrating cerebrovascular injury: a prospective multicenter study
R. Michael Meyer, Ramesh Grandhi, Do H. Lim, Walid K. Salah, Malia McAvoy, Zachary A. Abecassis, Robert H. Bonow, Melanie Walker, Basavaraj V. Ghodke, Sarah T. Menacho, Sharon Durfy, Randall M. Chesnut, Louis J. Kim, Randy S. Bell, and Michael R. Levitt
In this research, the authors sought to characterize the incidence and extent of cerebrovascular lesions after penetrating brain injury in a civilian population and to compare the diagnostic value of head computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in their diagnosis.
This was a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with penetrating brain injury due to any mechanism presenting at two academic medical centers over a 3-year period (May 2020 to May 2023). All patients underwent both CTA and DSA. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA was calculated, with DSA considered the gold standard. The number of DSA studies needed to identify a lesion requiring treatment that had not been identified on CTA was also calculated.
A total of 73 patients were included in the study, 33 of whom had at least 1 penetrating cerebrovascular injury, for an incidence of 45.2%. The injuries included 13 pseudoaneurysms, 11 major arterial occlusions, 9 dural venous sinus occlusions, 8 dural arteriovenous fistulas, and 6 carotid cavernous fistulas. The sensitivity of CTA was 36.4%, and the specificity was 85.0%. Overall, 5.6 DSA studies were needed to identify a lesion requiring treatment that had not been identified with CTA.
Cerebrovascular injury is common after penetrating brain injury, and CTA alone is insufficient to diagnosis these injuries. Patients with penetrating brain injuries should routinely undergo DSA.
Angiographic cross-filling between inferior petrosal sinuses and alteration of adrenocorticotropic hormone sampling results for tumor localization in Cushing disease
Michael L. Martini, R. Chase Ransom, Julian S. Rechberger, Derek O’Keeffe, William Young Jr., John L. D. Atkinson, Fredric B. Meyer, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Lucas Carlstrom, Harry J. Cloft, and Jamie Van Gompel
Inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling (IPSS) is a diagnostic procedure used to guide diagnostic localization of imaging-negative adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting pituitary microadenomas. However, the efficacy of IPSS has been suboptimal at accurately lateralizing the adenoma, reducing surgical cure rates and leading to unintended pituitary dysfunction due to the added exploration. One rationale for the occasional imprecision is the existence of additional petrosal sinus collateral channels that connect the IPS bilaterally, which may lead to false localization results during sampling. The aim of this study was to explore a potential connection between normal anatomical variation in the angioarchitecture of the IPSs and the ACTH results obtained in subsequent IPSS tests.
A retrospective review was performed on all cases between 1998 and 2013 involving patients at a single institution who underwent IPSS for radiographically equivocal pituitary microadenomas. Cases were reviewed for tumor laterality noted on either operative or pathology reports, as well as the presence of angiographic evidence of cross-filling between the sinuses. In addition, ACTH levels from the right and left IPSs were documented at baseline and at 2, 5, and 10 minutes after corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration. A ratio of the change in ACTH levels measured at the time of maximal response (10 minutes) versus the levels measured at the initial response (2 minutes) was computed for each patient and compared between patients by their angiographic cross-filling status.
There were 41 patients with a histopathologically confirmed right- or left-sided ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma who underwent preoperative IPSS. Among these patients, 28 (68%) showed angiographic evidence of cross-filling between the IPSs, and 13 showed no cross-filling. On average, ACTH levels increased by a factor of 3.91 ± 0.77 in the contralateral IPS in patients with angiographic cross-filling, compared with a factor increase of only 1.80 ± 0.27 in patients without cross-filling (p = 0.014). In comparison, ACTH levels increased by a factor of 2.01 ± 0.57 in the ipsilateral IPS in patients with cross-filling, and by 8.78 ± 7.30 in those without cross-filling (p = 0.373).
The presence of angiographic cross-filling, suggestive of a greater degree of vascular channel networking between the right and left IPS, is a significant factor influencing the measured rates of change of ACTH in IPSS and may impact the specificity of this test to accurately determine microadenoma laterality in the preoperative setting.