Qiang Tan, Qianwei Chen, Yin Niu, Zhou Feng, Lin Li, Yihao Tao, Jun Tang, Liming Yang, Jing Guo, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, and Zhi Chen
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with a high rate of mortality and severe disability, while fibrinolysis for ICH evacuation is a possible treatment. However, reported adverse effects can counteract the benefits of fibrinolysis and limit the use of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Identifying appropriate fibrinolytics is still needed. Therefore, the authors here compared the use of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an alternate thrombolytic, with that of tPA in a preclinical study.
Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting autologous blood into the caudate, followed by intraclot fibrinolysis without drainage. Rats were randomized to receive uPA, tPA, or saline within the clot. Hematoma and perihematomal edema, brain water content, Evans blue fluorescence and neurological scores, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP mRNA, blood-brain barrier (BBB) tight junction proteins, and nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB) activation were measured to evaluate the effects of these 2 drugs in ICH.
In comparison with tPA, uPA better ameliorated brain edema and promoted an improved outcome after ICH. In addition, uPA therapy more effectively upregulated BBB tight junction protein expression, which was partly attributed to the different effects of uPA and tPA on the regulation of MMPs and its related mRNA expression following ICH.
This study provided evidence supporting the use of uPA for fibrinolytic therapy after ICH. Large animal experiments and clinical trials are required to further explore the efficacy and safety of uPA in ICH fibrinolysis.
Fangke Xie, Qiang Tan, Anyong Yu, Peiwen Guo, Ling Wang, Zongwei Zeng, Liang Liang, Jishu Xian, Hua Feng, and Zhi Chen
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) fibrinolysis did not improve functional outcomes of patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), largely because of the unsatisfactory clot clearance. The presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) within the clot has been confirmed to impair tPA fibrinolysis, but the mechanism has been unclear. The authors hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the main framework of NETs, might be the important reason for the fibrinolysis resistance, and they validated the hypothesis, hoping to provide a new target to promote intraventricular fibrinolysis.
First, cfDNA was detected in IVH clots by immunofluorescence staining in a rat model of IVH. Second, after blood (with or without exogenous cfDNA) intraventricular injection, IVH rats were given intraventricular infusion of 2 μl of saline, tPA, or tPA + DNase1 randomly. Then, the ventricular volume, animal behavior, and reactive astrocyte proliferation were assessed. Third, the IVH clots were collected for fibrinolysis assay in vitro. Finally, the effects of exogenous cfDNA in IVH were evaluated.
The presence of cfDNA in clots was observed as early as 1 hour after IVH. Compared with the whole-blood model, blood + cfDNA caused more severe ventricular dilation (day 7: blood 32.47 ± 2.096 mm3 vs blood + DNA 40.09 ± 2.787 mm3, p < 0.05), increased fibrinolysis resistance to tPA (day 7: tPA + DNA 26.04 ± 1.318 mm3 vs tPA 22.15 ± 1.706 mm3, p < 0.05), and further deteriorated the functional defects in rats (blood vs blood + DNA, p < 0.05). Degradation of cfDNA by DNase1 further enhanced the fibrinolysis effects on relieving the ventricular dilation (day 7: tPA + DNase1 11.67 ± 2.023 mm3 vs tPA, p < 0.05), improving the functional outcome (tPA vs tPA + DNase1, p < 0.05) and reducing periventricular astrocyte proliferation.
cfDNA impaired tPA fibrinolysis for IVH, and degradation of cfDNA may be a new target to improve this condition.
Phoenix, Arizona • March 6–9, 2013